Stabilité gastro-intestinale, activité antimicrobienne et impact sur le microbiote colique de la microcine J25 : approches métagénomiques et métabolomiques
|Advisor:||Fliss, Ismaïl; Rebuffat, Sylvie|
|Abstract:||Antibiotics have long been used in animal husbandry practices as feed additives to improve animal growth as well as to treat bacterial infections, including those caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella. However, this practice has largely contributed to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in commensal and pathogenic bacteria, which has led to a real public health problem. The increased incidence of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria, has promoted the search for new alternatives and natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including bacteriocins are among the promising alternatives that have been proposed. Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is an antimicrobial peptide produced by Escherichia coli and known to exert a potent inhibitory activity against Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella. Thanks to its lasso structure, MccJ25 has a low sensitivity to proteases and to denaturing conditions suggesting a higher stability in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) conditions. These characteristics make MccJ25 a molecule with high potential for use as an alternative to antibiotics in the veterinary field. The general objective of this thesis was to evaluate the potential of MccJ25 as an alternative to antibiotics for the inhibition of Salmonella in the physiological conditions of the digestive tract of piglet. In the first part of this study, the stability and the inhibitory activity of MccJ25 were evaluated in the different compartments of the GI tract using the dynamic simulator TIM-1. MccJ25 demonstrated higher stability in the stomach compartment; however, a moderate degradation was observed when the peptide entered the duodenum. Degradation products of MccJ25 in duodenal conditions and in the presence of different proteolytic enzymes were further analyzed using LC-MS/MS and subsequent molecular networking analysis using the Global Natural Product Social Molecular Networking platform (GNPS). Thus, the enzymes responsible for the degradation of MccJ25 have been identified. In the second part of the present study, the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations of MccJ25 were determined in vitro against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport ATCC6962 in LB medium as well as in MacFarlane medium that simulates the swine colonic conditions. This inhibitory activity was also compared to that of two other antimicrobials namely reuterin and rifampicin. Finally, the activity of MccJ25 against Salmonella Newport and its impact on the composition and the metabolic activity of the swine colonic microbiota were evaluated using the in vitro continuous fermentation model PolyFermS that simulates the swine proximal colon conditions. The inhibitory activity against Salmonella Newport was evaluated using the agar diffusion assay, while the impact on the different bacterial groups of the swine colonic microbiota was quantified by qPCRPMA method and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Interestly, MccJ25 did not induce any significant modification of the composition of the colonic microbiota, whereas it strongly inhibited the growth of Salmonella Newport, unlike reuterin and rifampicin. However, the analysis of the metabolic activity of the colonic microbiota using the R software and the LC-MS data, demonstrated a significant effect of MccJ25 on the intracellular metabolome. No significant effect was obtained with extracellular metabolome. In conclusion, the application of very original, varied and complementary microbiological, metagenomic and metabolomic approaches allowed us to confirm the potential of MccJ25 for use as an alternative to antibiotics in the veterinary sector. Its stability in the early stages of digestion, its specificity with regard to Salmonella and the fact that its addition into the intestinal microbiota does not cause any dysbiosis, suggested it as a good candidate as an anti-Salmonella. However, additional studies remain necessary to confirm these results in vivo under real animal use conditions.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||16 August 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
All documents in CorpusUL are protected by Copyright Act of Canada.