L'inhalation répétée de métacholine sur la mécanique respiratoire chez la souris
|Abstract:||Asthma is a prevalent respiratory disorder for which a proportion of patients responds poorly to actual treatment, which highlights the necessity to study the physiopathology of asthma and to develop more efficient drugs. The airway smooth muscle plays a chief role in asthma. This is because the excessive activation of airway smooth muscle that characterizes asthma, and the exaggerated contraction that ensues, leads to respiratory symptoms by obstructing the airway lumen. The two projects presented in this Master’s thesis focus on the effects of repeated inhalations of methacholine, an activator of airway smooth muscle, in mice. The hypothesis of the first project postulated that the mechanical stress the airway wall undergoes during repeated methacholine-induced constrictions leads to structural changes in the airway wall. The results demonstrated that repeated constrictions by themselves are not sufficient to induce key features of airway wall remodeling, to alter respiratory mechanics and to change the contractile capacity of airway smooth muscle. The hypothesis of the second project postulated that repeated inhalations of methacholine trigger adaptation of the muscarinic receptors, which leads to a decreased effect of muscarinic agonists over time. In turn, this would decrease the force generated by airway smooth muscle and thereby relieves airway obstruction. The results confirmed that repeated activations of the muscarinic receptors by inhaled methacholine decrease airway responsiveness to methacholine in vivo, as well as the force generated by the airway smooth muscle in response to methacholine ex vivo. Interestingly, in a murine model of asthma, repeated activations of the muscarinic receptors completely reverse airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be determined.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||25 July 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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