Analyse structurale, fonctionnelle et développementale de l'os dans l'anémie de Fanconi

Authors: Mazon, Mélody
Advisor: Carreau, Madeleine
Abstract: Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease. In humans, any mutation in one of the 22 proteins of the Fanconi complex leads to bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. This pathology is also characterized by various developmental defects including short stature and skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs. Indeed, more than half of children affected with FA have radial-ray abnormalities with a tendency to develop early osteoporosis. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to bone defects in FA remains elusive. Previous results from our laboratory showed that Fanconi mice overexpress the Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) in their plasma. This protein is implicated in limb development and osteoblast activity and its overexpression in plasma correlates with a decrease in bone mineral density in humans. Therefore, DKK1 overexpression could reflect an alteration of the skeletal system in Fanconi mice. This manuscript presents the work I achieved in Madeleine Carreau’s lab to characterize the embryonic skeletal development of Fanconi mice and determine the mechanisms leading to altered bone development and metabolism in adult mice. To this aim, alizarin red and Alcian blue double staining was performed on mouse embryos (E15.5 to 19.5 dpc) to evaluate skeletal maturation. In adults, bone structure and mineral content were evaluated using μCT-scan analyses of tibias from FancC-/- and wild-type mice. Histomorphometric analyses were performed to assess bone forming abilities of osteoblasts and bone stiffness was evaluated using three points bending test. In vitro cultures were performed to assess mesenchymal stem cell differentiation ability and q-PCR analysis of bone and marrow cells were performed to identify molecular mechanisms leading to altered bone physiology. Our results show that FancC-/- and FancA-/- embryos have an abnormal skeletal development indicated by a twenty percent decrease of bone mineralization surface. In adults, FancC-/- mice present a decrease in bone mineral density associated with a decrease in male’s bone stiffness. Using in vitro studies, we found that FancC-/- and FancA-/- bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have reduced osteoblastic differentiation capabilities and favor adipogenesis. Those results were associated with the alteration of bone cells gene expression profiles. Our results suggest that defective bone physiology in FA occurs in utero and possibly results from altered BM-MSCs function. These results provide, for the first time, valuable insights into the mechanisms involved in FA developmental defects. Our results strengthen the important link between hematopoietic stem cells behavior and bone metabolism alteration in this disease. Future studies should focus on this area to better understand the mechanisms of bone defects and hope for targeted treatment for Fanconi Anemia.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 25 July 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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