L'impact de l'âge à la vaccination, du type de vaccin et de la présence des manifestations cliniques indésirables sur la réponse immunitaire au vaccin contre la rougeole

Authors: Carazo Perez, Sara
Advisor: De Serres, GastonBureau, Alexandre
Abstract: Universal measles immunization has resulted in the control of the disease and its elimination in the Americas since 2002. To achieve and maintain elimination, population immunity needs to be higher than 90%. In addition to vaccination coverage, high vaccine efficacy is essential to ensure such immunity. The age at first dose determines the immune response, but this appeared to be especially important in children vaccinated with a single dose and born to mothers who had had measles. The second dose was added to seroconvert those who did not respond to the first dose (primary failures). However, the measles epidemic in Quebec in 2011 showed that the risk among two-dose recipients increased with an earlier age at first vaccination. Other epidemiological studies have documented secondary vaccine failures among those vaccinated with two doses; they had developed a weak and transient immune response. Moreover, the measles vaccine is usually given as a trivalent combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), or tetravalent, including also varicella vaccine (MMRV). The latter induces more antibodies against measles, but also more fever than MMR. In an epidemiological context characterized by a two-dose schedule and children born to vaccinated mothers, our project aimed to evaluate the effect of the age at first dose, the type of combined vaccine and the adverse events on the response to one and two doses of MMR or MMRV. Three studies were conducted: 1. A systematic review with meta-analysis synthesized the current knowledge about the effect of the age at first dose on the protection and immunogenicity of the measles vaccine in children who received one or two doses. 2. An immunological study aimed to estimate the effect of age at the first dose of MMR or MMRV on the immune response, to assess the correlation between antibody titers after the first and the second dose and to describe the evolution of antibody titers during a three-year follow-up. 3. A third study evaluated the role of post-vaccination fever as a mediator in the associations between age, type of vaccine and antibody titer. Studies 2 and 3 performed a post-hoc analysis of data on immunogenicity and reactogenicity of MMR and MMRV vaccines from five clinical trials conducted in Europe and the United States between 2004 and 2010 with 5542 children aged 11 to 22 months. To evaluate the different associations, we constructed linear and log-binomial regression models to estimate, respectively, the antibody concentrations and the risk of seronegativity. The proportion of the effect of the age or the effect of the type of vaccine on the immunogenicity that was explained by the fever was estimated using a mediation analysis. We showed that seroconversion, antibody concentration, and protection increased with age at first vaccination and with MMRV vaccination. Titers after the first and the second doses were strongly correlated. After the second dose, the seropositive proportion was very high for any age at first vaccination. However, the titers gradually decreased during the three-year follow-up. Fever was not a mediator of the effect of age, but accounted for 18% of the total effect of the type of vaccine on the immune response. Finally, fever onset was the best predictor of antibody titers. In conclusion, a first dose of measles vaccine at 15 months and the use of MMRV appear to increase the immunity of the population, even in children born to vaccinated mothers and with a two-dose schedule. Countries that have eliminated or with low transmission of the disease may revisit their recommendations considering the increased immunogenicity by age and type of vaccine, the risk of disease among children aged 12 to 15 months, and the increased adverse clinical manifestations when MMRV is administered as a first dose.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 9 July 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/30330
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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