Étude de la structure et de la fonction de la petite protéine de choc thermique DmHsp27

Authors: Moutaoufik, Mohamed Taha
Advisor: Tanguay, Robert M.
Abstract: Small heat shock proteins are present in varying numbers in all organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster there are 12 sHsps, which have distinctive developmental expression patterns, intracellular localizations and substrate specificities. DmHsp27 is one of the very few sHsps that have a nuclear localization before and after heat shock. This nuclear localization is unusual, especially since no specific function has yet been identified. The mechanisms responsible for the nuclear localization of DmHsp27 and its function in the nucleus remain poorly understood. First, the study of DmHsp27 orthologs helped to determine that nuclear localization is not specific to DmHsp27 and other sHsps in insects have the same nuclear localization signal as DmHsp27. The DmHsp27 interaction network leads to believe that this protein does not only play the role of chaperone, but it is also involved in various nuclear processes. Second, unlike metazoan sHsps, DmHsp27 forms two populations of oligomers not in equilibrium. Mutations of highly conserved arginine residues in the ACD domain in mammalian sHsps has been reported to be associated with protein conformational defects and intracellular aggregation. Independent mutation of three highly conserved arginines (R122, R131 and R135) to glycine in DmHsp27 results in only one population of higher molecular weight form. In vitro, the chaperone-like activity of wild type DmHsp27 was comparable with that of its two isolated populations and to the single population of the R122G, R131G and R135G using luciferase as substrate. However, using insulin, the chaperone-like activity of wild type DmHsp27 was lower than that of R122G and R131G mutants. Finaly, we established the importance of the N-terminal region for oligomerization and we investigated the heat activation under in vitro experimental conditions using size exclusion chromatography and gradient native gels electrophoresis. By deletion strategy, we have examined the role of the N-terminal region and delineated a motif (FGFG) important for the oligomeric structure and chaperone-like activity of this sHsp. Deletion of the full N-terminal domain, resulted in total loss of chaperon-like activity; intriguingly deletion of the (FGFG) at position 29 to 32 or single mutation of G30R and G32R enhanced oligomerization and chaperoning capacity under non heat shock conditions using the insulin assay suggesting the importance of this site for chaperone activity. Unlike mammalian sHsps heat activation of DmHsp27 leads to enhanced dissociation/association of oligomers to form large structures about 1000 kDa. We suggest a new mechanism of heat activation for DmHsp27. In summary, this study characterized DmHsp27 and mutant in the alpha crystallin domain and the N-terminal region and provided an overview of a new protection mechanism. The role played by DmHsp27 as molecular chaperone and its induction during embryonic development, suggest that this protein may perform other important cellular functions
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 5 July 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/30306
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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