Rôles de rank/rankl/opg dans le muscle squelettique : intérêt thérapeutique potentiel pour la dystrophie musculaire de Duchenne

Authors: Dufresne, Sébastien S.
Advisor: Frenette, Jérôme
Abstract: Although there is an obvious dynamic cross-talk between muscle and bone, a common signalling pathway that efficiently and synchronously controls these tissues has barely been investigated in all forms of muscle diseases. The aim of this thesis is to characterize the roles of RANK/RANKL/OPG, key regulators of bone remodeling, on skeletal muscle atrophy, phenotype and dysfunction. Firstly, we show that RANK is expressed in skeletal muscle and that muscle RANK deletion has inotropic effects in denervated fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, preventing on one side the loss of maximum specific force while promoting muscle atrophy and fatigability, and increasing the proportion of fast-twitch fibers. We next demonstrate that a pharmacological treatment of dystrophic mdx mice with recombinant full-length OPG-Fc mitigates the loss of muscle force in a dose-dependent manner and preserves muscle integrity, particularly in EDL muscles. We also found that the full-length OPG-Fc has limited effects on slow-twitch soleus (Sol) muscles. However OPG-Fc potentiates the positive effects of a low dose of formoterol, a member of β2-agonists, and completely restores the function of the Sol dystrophic muscles. Finally, we investigated the mechanism by which the full-length OPGFc protects the dystrophic muscles. Structurally, the OPG protein contains four TNFR domains (RANKL), two death domains ( TRAIL) and a heparin-binding region. Our results indicate that anti-RANKL or anti-TRAIL or truncated OPG treatments (only TNFR domains) or RANK deletion are much less effective in preserving the strength of dystrophic muscles than full-length OPG-Fc. Surprisingly, the absence of extracellular Ca2+ significantly reduces the effects of full-length OPG-Fc on the force production of dystrophic muscles when incubated in a physiological bath in vitro. Confocal microscopy images showed that the full-length OPG-Fc binds directly to myotubes through a receptor that is currently unidentified activating possibly integrin-linked kinase (ILK) which upregulates sarco/endoplasmic calcium ATPase pump (SERCA-2a) expression in C2C12 myotubes. Heparinase, which cleaves heparin and heparin sulphate proteoglycan, or an inhibitor of ILK activity abrogates OPG-induced SERCA-2a expression, suggesting that OPG through ILK upregulates SERCA-2a expression, a key determinant of muscle performance. Overall, this thesis shed some light on RANK/RANKL/OPG functions in skeletal muscle which will potentially contribute to the development of new treatments for several forms of muscle and bone diseases.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 5 July 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/30305
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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