Mineral identification using data-mining in hyperspectral infrared imagery

Authors: Yousefi, Bardia
Advisor: Maldague, XavierBeaudoin, Georges
Abstract: The geological applications of hyperspectral infrared imagery mainly consist in mineral identification, mapping, airborne or portable instruments, and core logging. Finding the mineral indicators offer considerable benefits in terms of mineralogy and mineral exploration which usually involves application of portable instrument and core logging. Moreover, faster and more mechanized systems development increases the precision of identifying mineral indicators and avoid any possible mis-classification. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to create a tool to using hyperspectral infrared imagery and process the data through image analysis and machine learning methods to identify small size mineral grains used as mineral indicators. This system would be applied for different circumstances to provide an assistant for geological analysis and mineralogy exploration. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions in the long-wave infrared (7.7μm to 11.8μm - LWIR), with a LWIR-macro lens (to improve spatial resolution), an Infragold plate, and a heating source. The process began with a method to calculate the continuum removal. The approach is the application of Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) to extract Rank-1 NMF and estimate the down-welling radiance and then compare it with other conventional methods. The results indicate successful suppression of the continuum from the spectra and enable the spectra to be compared with spectral libraries. Afterwards, to have an automated system, supervised and unsupervised approaches have been tested for identification of pyrope, olivine and quartz grains. The results indicated that the unsupervised approach was more suitable due to independent behavior against training stage. Once these results obtained, two algorithms were tested to create False Color Composites (FCC) applying a clustering approach. The results of this comparison indicate significant computational efficiency (more than 20 times faster) and promising performance for mineral identification. Finally, the reliability of the automated LWIR hyperspectral infrared mineral identification has been tested and the difficulty for identification of the irregular grain’s surface along with the mineral aggregates has been verified. The results were compared to two different Ground Truth(GT) (i.e. rigid-GT and observed-GT) for quantitative calculation. Observed-GT increased the accuracy up to 1.5 times than rigid-GT. The samples were also examined by Micro X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in order to retrieve information for the mineral aggregates and the grain’s surface (biotite, epidote, goethite, diopside, smithsonite, tourmaline, kyanite, scheelite, pyrope, olivine, and quartz). The results of XRF imagery compared with automatic mineral identification techniques, using ArcGIS, and represented a promising performance for automatic identification and have been used for GT validation. In overall, the four methods (i.e. 1.Continuum removal methods; 2. Classification or clustering methods for mineral identification; 3. Two algorithms for clustering of mineral spectra; 4. Reliability verification) in this thesis represent beneficial methodologies to identify minerals. These methods have the advantages to be a non-destructive, relatively accurate and have low computational complexity that might be used to identify and assess mineral grains in the laboratory conditions or in the field.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 5 July 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/30304
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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