Rythme de l'hormone mélatonine, sommeil et fonctionnement à l'éveil en contexte de mésalignement circadien : études de deux populations à risque : les adolescents et les travailleurs de nuit

Authors: Martin, Jeanne-Sophie
Advisor: Hébert, MarcLaberge, Luc
Abstract: The sleep-wake cycle of mammals is usually organized according to two principal factors: the endogenous circadian rhythm, and the light-dark cycle. Humans are on the other hand living in a 24-h society, and will organize their sleep-wake schedule based on their work and school schedule. This can lead to circadian misalignment, which happens when one’s endogenous circadian rhythm is not in phase with external or astronomical time. In the past years, two situations caused by circadian misalignment have raised public health concerns. First, night work is considered as a risk factor for numerous health problems and has been linked more recently to cancer. A second preoccupation regards adolescent school schedules, which have been stated by the scientific community to be not adequate for adolescent’s sleep needs. Considering that these two problematic situations affect a large proportion of the population in industrialized countries, there is a keen interest to find factors modulating adaptation to these schedules, and to test strategies to improve adaptation to night work. The main objectives of this thesis was therefore to assess how chronotype is a factor modulating adaptation to these schedules, and to evaluate how exposure to short wavelengths of light during the night combined with cutting short wavelengths during the day can enhance adaptation to night shifts. The first article presented in this thesis reveals that adolescents’ sleep would beneficiate from a later school schedule, and that evening chronotypes are more at risk for sleepiness. The second article of this thesis compares the effect of night vs. day shifts on sleep and motor activity in shift workers, and demonstrate that evening chronotypes have more sleep problems in both type of shifts. The third article present results from two pilot studies testing light interventions (using short and long wavelengths light) aiming to increase adaptation to night work. Results from this article demonstrate that improving sleep and waking hours in shift work necessitates more than the sole adjustment of the circadian phase to the night shift; evening chronotypes, though better adjusted to the night schedule, were presenting more problems in sleep and functioning during waking hours.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 7 June 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/29993
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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