Caractérisation spectroscopique de la structure et de l'interaction membranaire de la recoverine

Authors: Potvin-Fournier, Kim
Advisor: Auger, MichèleSalesse, Christian
Abstract: Recoverin is evolved in the phototransduction cascade. It is a neuronal calcium sensor. This protein family of fourteen members shares common structural characteristics such as the presence of four EF-Hand motifs, the binding of calcium and the N-myristoylation. The phenomenon of calcium-myristoyl switch has been demonstrated without ambiguity only for recoverin; it is a change in tertiary structure which is triggered by calcium concentration. So, in the absence of calcium, recoverin is in a cytosolic form with its myristoyl moiety hidden in a hydrophobic pocket. At high calcium concentration, recoverin binds two calcium ions which in turn leads to the extrusion of its myristoyl moiety from the hydrophobic pocket and to its recruitment at the membrane. Recoverin is closely bound to rod outer segment disk membranes which present a unique lipid membrane composition. Indeed, this membrane displays the highest content of polyunsaturated lipid acyl chains in the human body. Moreover, the lipid polar headgroup is in majority zwitterionic with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Also, a small amount of the negatively charged phosphatidylserine is present, which seems to play a role in the membrane interaction of recoverin. Using lipid model systems such as multilamellar vesicles and mechanically oriented lipid bilayers allows to more properly characterize the role of each membrane component. The aim of this thesis project, divided in four specific objectives, was to gain information on recoverin membrane interaction by studying the influence of the presence of calcium, of recoverin myristoylation and of membrane composition. The first specific objective was to determine the structural stability of myristoylated or non myristoylated recoverin in the absence and presence of calcium. Recoverin is structurally stable at ambient and body temperature as shown by infrared spectroscopy. The presence of calcium beyond a specific calcium:recoverin ratio allows protein structural stability up to 65 °C, recoverin aggregation is observed above this temperature. The second specific objective was to understand the role of negatively charged lipids on recoverin membrane interaction. We have demonstrated that recoverin needs a minimal amount of bound calcium to preserve its thermal stability since phosphatidylglycerol binds calcium, which reduces the concentration of calcium available for recoverin. The melting of complexes between calcium and phosphatidylglycerol favors membrane interaction of recoverin by further increasing the lipid phase transition temperature. The third specific objective was to investigate the effect of membrane fluidity on the recoverin immobilization using phosphatidylcholine bearing different lipid acyl chains. Deuterium solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used with a perdeuterated myristoyl moiety on recoverin. We have thus confirmed the dependence of the calcium-myristoyl switch phenomenon on calcium concentration. Moreover, we have shown that an optimal membrane fluidity is required for the membrane immobilization of the myristoyl moiety of recoverin. The fourth specific objective was to study the recoverin membrane interaction with dioleoylphosphatidylcholine. Infrared spectroscopy has shown that recoverin does not perturb lipid bilayer organization and remains thermally stable in the presence of these lipids. Non myristoylated recoverin increases slightly lipid hydration that is correlated to an increase in lipid lateral diffusion as seen with centerband-only detection of exchange (CODEX) pulse sequences by phosphorus-31 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. 19-Fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows the observation of the calcium-myristoyl switch and of recoverin myristoyl moiety membrane immobilization in the presence of calcium as well as two different environments for the recoverin myristoyl moiety in the absence of calcium. In conclusion, calcium allows recoverin membrane interaction and thermal stability of recoverin. Recoverin myristoylation allows its anchorage in the membrane and increases interaction with phosphatidylglycerol. Finally, an optimal membrane fluidity is required for recoverin membrane anchorage and negatively charged lipids increase recoverin membrane interaction.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 7 June 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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