Implication de la protéine Girdin dans la polarité apico-basale des cellules épithéliales chez Drosophila melanogaster

Authors: Sévigny, Myriam
Advisor: Laprise, Patrick
Abstract: Apical-basal polarization of epithelial cells is indispensable for maintaining tissue integrity, and its deregulation contributes to tumor progression. The antagonistic interactions between the basolateral proteins Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) and Yurt (Yrt) and the apical components Crumbs (Crb) and the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) define apical and basolateral domains. Crb and aPKC are essential for apical membrane growth. The apical and lateral domains are segregated by adherens junctions (AJ), a structure involved in cell-cell cohesion and polarity. The protein Girdin is essential for epithelial tissues morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster and mediates AJ stabilization. Our objective is to determine if Girdin has a role in regulating epithelial polarity. We have shown that reducing Girdin levels, but not the levels of other major AJ components, exacerbates the apicalization of epithelial cells in lgl or yrt zygotic mutants. Residual activity of Lgl and Yrt is thus repressed when girdin dosage is reduced, probably due to an over-activation of their repressor aPKC. Moreover, we observed that a reduction of girdin activity partially rescues the epithelial integrity of aPKC-depleted or hypomorphic crb mutant embryos, Crb being an apical substrate of aPKC. This suggests that Girdin represses aPKC and Crb activity. We noticed that the absence of Girdin leads to an increase of the basolateral aPKC substrates Yrt and Lgl phosphorylation levels. Therefore, in parallel to regulating the AJ complex, Girdin may modulate aPKC activity by either interacting directly with the kinase or by associating to Yrt or Lgl, two repressors of aPKC and Crb. Our results indicate that Girdin acts as a negative regulator of aPKC. This places Girdin as a hub in epithelial polarity regulation, tissue morphogenesis and tumor progression.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 24 May 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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