Les différents microbiotes de l'holobionte Grand corégone (Coregonus clupeaformis) dans un contexte de spéciation

Authors: Sevellec, Maelle
Advisor: Bernatchez, LouisDerome, Nicolas
Abstract: Animals have evolved with their microbiota. However, little is known about the role of bacteria over the course of this evolution. These last few years, it has been shown that the microbiota influences speciation by controlling the pre-zygotic and post-zygotic reproductive isolation. The main goal of the thesis is to analysis for the first time the influence of the microbiota on the Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) which represents a continuum in the early stage of ecological speciation. Some species pairs of dwarf (limnetic niche specialist) and normal (benthic niche specialist) evolved in parallel inside several lakes in northeastern North America. Bacterial communities have been compared among five wild sympatric species pairs of whitefish as well as captive dwarf, normal and hybrids whitefish reared in identical controlled conditions. For the wild fish, difference of the bacterial community structure was highlighted in the three studied interactions between the bacterial community and the host: host-pathogen, host-symbiont and host-transient bacteria. Although no parallelism was detected for the bacterial community structure for these interactions, it was highlighted at the bacterial diversity level. Moreover, parallelism was not observed within the bacteria community structure, likely because the water bacterial communities, studied in this thesis, and the biotic and abiotic factors were characterized by important variation between the lake populations of whitefish. Furthermore, results revealed a strong influence of the host (dwarf or normal) on the bacterial communities with pronounced conservation of the core intestinal microbiota. Finally, our result highlighted the complexity of the holobiont (host + bacteria), suggesting that the direction of selection could differ between the host and its microbiota. In fact, three evolutionary directions have been highlighted between the fish and its bacterial communities. For the captive whitefish, an influence of host (normal, dwarf and hybrids) was also detected on bacterial taxonomic composition. Hybrid microbiota was not intermediate and its composition fell outside of that observed in the parental forms. This pioneer study on the bacterial communities of the Lake whitefish opens new research fields related to the evolution of the holobiont.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 3 May 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/29578
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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