La santé cardiorespiratoires de l'athlète d'élite : principales pathologies et mécanismes de développement

Authors: Turmel, Julie
Advisor: Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Poirier, Paul
Abstract: The high prevalence of cardiorespiratory problems in athletes reported in the literature and observed in our clinical practice, as well as the importance of cardiovascular screening in athletes lead us to evaluate the prevalence of different cardiorespiratory condition in endurance athletes of Quebec and Chaudiere-Appalaches area. Our studies allowed to assess the effect of intense training and environmental factors on respiratory and cardiovascular function in high level athletes as well as analyzed some mechanisms that could explain these particular cardiorespiratory conditions. Our results mainly showed a high prevalence of exercise-induced asthma, post-exercise cough in winter endurance athletes, and few cardiac abnormalities, such as arterial hypertension at rest and during exercise. Following a literature review on the effects of cold air on lung function of athletes practicing winter sports, we have evaluated whether there was a seasonal variation in the airway responsiveness and airway inflammation which could explain the frequent respiratory symptoms that are reported by these athletes. Our results suggest that there is no seasonal variation in airway responsiveness or airway inflammation in these athletes. However, a significant decrease in lung function was observed during the winter compared to summer and fall time. It seems to be associated with epithelial damage which was significantly higher in the winter time. Post-exercise cough being the symptom most frequently reported by endurance athletes practicing winter sports, we assessed whether the cough reflex could be increased by the inhalation of large volumes of cold air during winter time in these athletes. Our results showed that athletes had more post-exercise cough (1 hour after and up to 8 hours after exercise) than control subjects. However, we have not observed an increase in the cough reflex during the winter season. This has therefore led us to assess whether there were differences in resting and exercise blood pressure, heart rate variability and lipid profile between a resting period and a training period in a group of athletes. Our results suggest that heart rate variability and exercise blood pressure are increased during training period. In addition, athletes with an hypertensive response to exercise have higher resting blood pressure but within normal limits, as well as lowered values of protective factors of lipid profile (decrease in HDL) than those with a exercise normotensive response.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2011
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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