Reconstruction d'un modèle vésical par génie tissulaire et caractérisation

Authors: Bouhout, Sara
Advisor: Bolduc, Stéphane
Abstract: The purpose of the urinary tract is to ensure the evacuation of catabolic products in urine form. This function permits to preserve the equilibrium and consistency of the blood components (homeostasis). More precisely, the bladder is a watertight and compliant reservoir in charge of urine storage at low pressure, before its evacuation out of the organism. The bladder is subject to various pathologies, which could compromise its specific properties and damage the upper urinary tract. Therefore, the elaboration of a new reservoir is essential to collect the urine at low pressure. Surgical reconstruction is associated to significant complications, principally due to the lack of protection against urine, physiologically ensured by the highly specialized uro-eptithelium. Contrarily to the beginning of tissue engineering, cellular and molecular organizations are strongly considered nowadays. It is the reason why this discipline needs different matrices and host cells to reproduce a substitute conform to the original organ. But to date, no bioengineered models were able to completely overcome the limitations previously reported. The complexity of the vesical replacement remained a major challenge that led our team to research a more efficient bladder substitute. This project describes the approaches elaborated to achieve a vesical substitute comparable to the bladder mucosa. In addition, the structural and functional properties of our in vitro reconstructed models will be characterized with the use of different techniques. Based on our previous studies, several cellular types were isolated from the bladder wall, and then characterized in vitro. Using specific techniques of tissue-engineering, bladder mesenchymal and urothelial cells evolve in a three-dimensional culture to produce a tissue easy to handle. The maturation degree of our reconstructed models reached satisfactory characteristics to meet the need in the bladder regenerative field, and could led to better post-surgical results.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2015
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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