Dynamic trajectory planning and synthesis for fully-actuated cable-suspended parallel robots
|Abstract:||In the trend that robots are required to operate at increasingly high speeds and in large workspaces, dynamic trajectories of fully actuated cable-suspended parallel robots (CSPRs) that can extend beyond the robots’ static workspace are designed. Due to the unilateral property of cables, strategies to explore trajectories during which cable tensions can be guaranteed to remain positive are proposed. The planning and synthesis of dynamic periodic trajectories are first investigated for three-DOF point-mass, three-DOF planar, and six-DOF CSPRs. Based on an analytical approach, pure translation trajectories and more complex motion that includes changes in position and orientation are produced. A passive mechanical system that is equivalent to a CSPR is introduced to provide insight and facilitate the design of such trajectories. The dynamic differential equations that govern the translational component of the trajectories are shown to become linear under some conditions. Natural frequencies of the equivalent linear system are obtained and a generalization of periodic trajectories is accomplished by the integration of the linear system of differential equations. Natural trajectories associated with equivalent springs of constant stiffness and without any restriction of the amplitude are obtained. Using this formulation, the rotational component of three-DOF planar CSPRs becomes a nonlinear spring whose trajectories can be found in literature, which largely reduces the complexity of its trajectory planning. For six-DOF CSPRs, tilt and torsion angles are used to define the rotational component of the trajectories and the mathematical conditions corresponding to the linear trajectories are obtained. The above periodic trajectories provide insight into the fundamental properties of the mechanism and can be used in some specific applications. However, most practical situations require that the robot moves from one target point to another. Thus, a point-to-point dynamic trajectory planning technique for reaching a series of points for a point-mass three-DOF CSPR is proposed. Each trajectory segment is designed to have zero velocity at its endpoints. This formulation allows for trajectories that extend beyond the static workspace of the robot. A basis motion is introduced, which is a mathematical function that can be adapted for each coordinate direction along each trajectory segment. Kinematic constraints are satisfied through the selection of the coefficients for this function. Dynamic constraints are imposed by defining feasible regions within the workspace for each segment endpoint, based on the previous endpoint. This scheme is expanded to the trajectory planning of a six-DOF CSPR. Each trajectory segment is designed to have zero translational and rotational velocity at its endpoints; transitions between segments have translational and rotational acceleration. Additionally, smooth interpolation and singularity avoidance is achieved by using a unit quaternion to represent the rotational component of the trajectories. Then, a dynamic transition trajectory planning technique for three-DOF point-mass CSPRs is proposed to satisfy a real application where the robot is required to move from one trajectory to the next. This trajectory is designed to automatically chain multiple pre-generated trajectories beyond the static workspace in sequence with different starting points, as well as have the ability of starting from/ending with a resting position, while ensuring continuity up to the acceleration level. Two consecutive target trajectories are involved in the transition trajectory by using proper time functions, such that a goal trajectory is gradually reached by approaching the amplitude parameters and frequencies from those of a source trajectory. Additionally, each transition is based on the optimization of the departure point from its source trajectory and a minimum time for the transition to its goal trajectory. An example is provided to demonstrate the novel trajectory-planning technique. The robot is requested to start from the state of rest, merge into two consecutive ellipses, a straight line and a circle in sequence and then go back to the state of rest. Finally, experimental validation of the periodic and point-to-point trajectories is implemented on the prototype of a three-DOF point-mass CSPR and a six-DOF CSPR. Supplementary video files are included to demonstrate the results.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||24 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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