Fabrication de substituts de valves cardiaques par génie tissulaire avec la méthode par auto-assemblage sur gabarits tridimensionnels usinés

Authors: Lepage, Marc-Antoine
Advisor: Ruel, JeanAuger, François A.
Abstract: While 1% of children are born with a cardiac defect, valve prostheses actually available on the market do not meet their needs: oversized, non-growing, etc. The hypothesis is that it is possible to fabricate a tissue-engineered heart valve prosthesis (TEHV) with the self-assembly method adapted to the paediatric specific needs. This master level project, with the objective of improving the fabrication method, follows the work of our research group, which led to two different valve prosthesis fabrication techniques. The chosen approach consists in seeding dermal fibroblasts directly on the surface of plasma treated polycarbonate templates to ensure cell adherence, followed by maturation in a serum-free cell culture media (SFM) and a contraction phase to predetermined dimensions, allowing for a good coaptation of the leaflets. To reach this goal, four preliminary experiments were first conducted to set the ground for cell culture on 3D machined templates. They led to manipulable cell sheets on templates with a simple geometry, to increased mechanical properties due to the machined surface characteristics and the SFM, to a reduced contraction percentage and to the optimization of the plasma treatment. Subsequently, valve prosthesis fabrication assays allowed the method to progress further but did not end with the expected results. Therefore, optimizations are still required to make the method succeed. Indeed, the main hypothesis for this failure is a too small gas exchange area potentially leading to cell hypoxia and culture medium acidification secondary to carbon dioxide. Following the promising preliminary experiments, future trials considering the recommendations made in this thesis could lead to the successful fabrication of TEHV adapted to the paediatric patients.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2018
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/28352
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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