Biodiesel production under ultrasound and homogeneous catalysts

Authors: Shinde, Kiran
Advisor: Kaliaguine, S.Béland, François
Abstract: Biodiesel is obtained by transesterification reaction of triglycerides from vegetable oils or fats and a mono alcohol like methanol. This reaction is also known as alcoholysis. Ultrasound biodiesel production technique has recently emerged as a promising technology for synthesis of this alternative for fossil fuels. Ultrasound biodiesel production is based on the use of ultrasonic probes. By using this technique biodiesel production can be made on a large scale. Continuous ultrasonication technique can induce strong emulsion of alcohol and oil phases in a short time. Within very small residence time, high conversions are obtained in presence of different homogeneous catalysts. Therefore, it is necessary to solve the remaining challenges of biodiesel production, in terms of reactor design, catalyst recovery, cost and environment issues, in order to address the biodiesel production as a viable industrial technology. The previously studied biodiesel production technologies still show some challenges such as: methanol recovery issue, catalyst separation, reaction time, reaction temperature and oxide impurities in products. Therefore, there is still need to develop and modify the continuous biodiesel production technology. This work deals with the development of ultrasound biodiesel production. The original aspect of the present work conclusions is a vision of how ultrasound waves affect the transesterification reactions rates. Ultrasounds generate a fine emulsion of the biphasic system in the entire reactor volume. This will obviously affect interphase mass transfer. The catalytically active volume is however restricted to a small part of the reaction medium located in the immediate vicinity of the sonotrode probe. Within this volume fraction the extremely high reaction rate is very likely associated with the effects of cavitation. To increase the biodiesel production in presence of ethanol under ultrasound we tested the possible effects of minor methanol or other low vapor tension component additions on the accelerating phenomenon in triglycerides transesterification reactions due to ultrasounds. In the last part of the work we studied the transesterification reaction of canola oil with methanol and different types of catalysts using both mechanical stirring and ultrasonication reaction. The efficiency of mass transfer in the ultrasound field enhanced the higher rate of transesterification reaction as compared to stirring conditions. In case of propyl-2, 3 dicyclohexylguanidine and 1, 3- dicyclohexyl 2 n-octylguanidine (DCOG) as catalysts under ultrasound transesterification reaction we got noticeable TG conversion where as more than 80% regeneration of guanidine is possible from the reaction mixture by using silica cation exchanger columns. Keywords: ultrasound, transesterification, canola oil, FAME, sodium methoxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, Tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, Guanidine, silica cation exchanger columns.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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