Synthèse et caractérisation de phospholipides monofluorés et de peptides modèles : développement de nouvelles sondes membranaires

Authors: Gagnon, Marie-Claude
Advisor: Paquin, Jean-FrançoisAuger, Michèle
Abstract: The development of new methodologies to investigate interactions between cell membranes and various bioactive molecules such as peptides, proteins or drugs is of primary importance. These interactions are essential for the activity of those compounds and a better understanding would allow, among others, the development of new drugs, the improvement of their efficiency and the reduction of their toxicity. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is a method of choice to study membranes – molecules interactions. Specifically, using membrane probes is common and allows to access new experiments. The main project within this thesis focuses on the synthesis and study of monofluorinated phospholipids for their validation as model membranes probe in solid-state NMR. Fluorine possesses numerous chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of interest for its use to study biomolecule complexes in NMR spectroscopy. This thesis reports the synthesis of three new monofluorinated analogs of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (F-DMPC), having one fluorine atom located on the acyl chain at position 2 of the glycerol, with the goal of mimicking eukaryotic membranes. Property studies of these three new F-DMPCs and of three previously synthesized derivatives are also presented. Overall, the results have shown that the incorporation of a fluorine atom into DMPC perturbs significantly the membrane properties, but that F-DMPC/DMPC mixtures containing 25% F-DMPC or less behave in a similar way to DMPC membranes. To validate this new model, the orientation of two antimicrobial peptides having a known behaviour in the presence of DMPC membranes has been estimated in F-DMPC/DMPC (1/3) membranes. For all F-DMPC, 15N NMR has shown that peptide orientation is not affected by the presence of monofluorinated DMPC. Such mixtures can therefore be used as membrane probes to study interactions between them and various bioactive molecules with solid-state NMR. This thesis also presents the development of a new and flexible synthetic methodology of phosphatidylglycerols. As identical or different acyl chains with various lengths can be incorporated, this methodology will allow access to F-DMPG in order to mimic prokaryotic cell membranes. The second thesis project focuses on the study of new model peptides in order to develop a new tool to evaluate biological membrane thickness. A series of peptides analogues to the antimicrobial synthetic peptide MSI-103, having various lengths and called KIAn, have first been synthesized and studied to investigate the importance of the hydrophobic mismatch in the formation of pores and in the activity of these peptides. This study showed that peptide length is a key factor in their activity: the length must be sufficient to span the hydrophobic thickness of the lipid bilayers. However, the design of KIAn peptides implies that longer peptides are more charged and this factor can also influence the observed tendency. Therefore, this thesis reports our study aimed at verifying the influence of global cationic charge of KIAn peptides on their activity. Two new peptide series of various lengths (14 to 28 amino acids) and of constant global charge (+7), called KIA(7)n and KIXAn, have been synthesized and analyzed with several techniques (circular dichroism, biological tests, fluorescence spectroscopy and 15N NMR). This study confirmed the importance of hydrophobic mismatch and the absence of charge effect in the activity of these peptides. It also validated the use of these peptides as molecular rulers to estimate the hydrophobic thickness of lipid bilayers.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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