L'évolution des disparités de mobilité et de la localisation résidentielle chez les familles monoparentales et les aînés dans la région de Québec de 1996 à 2006

Authors: Lopez Castro, Marco Antonio
Advisor: Thériault, MariusVandersmissen, Marie-Hélène
Abstract: This doctoral thesis studies the changes in mobility conditions and in residential location of two potentially vulnerable groups: lone-parent families and elderly people. On the one hand, lone-parent families are generally considered one of the most disadvantaged groups in society. On the other hand, seniors face mobility challenges when they eventually lose their driving rights and because they do not consider or are unfamiliar with alternative transport options. The main objective is to identify factors that may create mobility disparities among members of the groups under study. Thus, in this thesis, the mobility disparities between the groups analyzed and comparable population segments (control groups) are measured based on differences in several socio-spatial factors, such as household motorization and residential centrality. The travel speed is used to evaluate mobility disparities because it determines people's activity space and conditions their potential access to opportunities, services and urban amenities outside home. Meanwhile, residential dispersion likely compounds the mobility challenges of vulnerable groups by increasing urban sprawl, which adds to the effort required to reach urban opportunities and activities. This research aims at providing decision makers with tools to assess risks of socio-spatial exclusion in urban areas and to promote policies capable of counteracting the reproduction of spatial injustice dynamics. The analyses developed in this thesis use information from origin-destination surveys of the Quebec City Metropolitan Area (QCMA) for 1996, 2001 and 2006 together with data from population censuses for the same years. The methodology is based on statistical tests of differences in means and proportions; quantile regressions; centrographic analyses of the spatial distribution of places of residence, and randomization tests to assess the significance of findings from the centrographic analysis. Regarding the mobility conditions and constraints faced by lone-parent families, the results indicate that households headed by mothers are less motorized and their members have a mobility gap compared to those led by fathers, which is reflected in lower travel speeds among the members of the former. The observed mobility disparities are particularly strong within trips performed at high travel speeds. Moreover, the centrographic analyses complemented by randomization tests reveal a significant increase in the residential dispersion of lone-parent families and retired couples aged 65 and over (without children at home) in the QCMA between 1996 and 2006. Lastly, the analysis of changes in mobility among elderly people indicates a deterioration in the average travel speed with aging in 1996 and 2006. Additionally, a comparison between 2006 and 1996, based on age cohorts and age groups, indicates a moderate improvement over time in travel speeds of trips associated with low and intermediate speeds, and a clear decline in travel speeds of trips more likely to involve driving a car on a motorway network. The analysis also reveals that the modal share of travel by foot increases with aging and that public transit is seldom used as a transport alternative by the elderly in the QCMA. Furthermore, the level of car access is one of the main determinants of older people’s mobility. The results obtained show the need for a holistic approach to help lone-parents and seniors to overcome their mobility challenges. These initiatives should include (but should not be limited to): developing “friendly” neighborhoods with ready access to urban services and amenities; increasing access to private transport by promoting car-sharing and ride-sharing; and tailoring flexible public transit solutions. Future research looking to expand the findings of this thesis could use the average travel speed estimations to generate cumulative accessibility measures and could also identify households with very restricted car access to detect groups potentially at risk to suffer a socio-spatial exclusion dynamic. Key words: mobility, accessibility, residential dispersion, lone parents, gender, retired couples, seniors, tests of differences of means and proportions, quantile regression, centrographic analysis, randomization tests, socio-spatial exclusion, car dependency.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/28020
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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