Utilisation de nanoparticules d'or plasmoniques pour le relargage contrôlé de médicaments et la détection d'ATP en milieu cellulaire
|Abstract:||Nanomaterials have attracted a great deal of attention in the fields of biology and medicine because of their unique properties arising from their small size. Metallic nanoparticles, more precisely, can interact with light in various ways as a result of their localized surface plasmon. Even though silver is the best plasmonic material, gold is usually preferred for medical applications because it is both more stable in biological conditions and biocompatible. Therefore, the objective of this project is to take advantage of the properties of gold nanoparticles in two distinct applications: controlled drug delivery and detection of biomolecules in cell cultures. First, gold nanorods with a plasmon in the near-infrared region are used to develop new nanocarriers for active drug transport. These nanorods are covered with a thermosensitive polymeric shell allowing the encapsulation of bioactive molecules. A near-infrared laser is used as an external stimulus to trigger the release of the drug ¬once the nanocarriers have reached the desired biological location by locally increasing the temperature of the gold nanorods. These new modules are developed in collaboration with Dr. Patrick Mathieu from the Quebec Heart and Lung Institute of Université Laval in order to study the decalcification of heart valves. The second project aims at developing a micrometric tool for the detection of adenosine 5’-triphosphate in the vicinity of live cells, in collaboration with the groups of Prof. Jean-François Masson of Université de Montréal and Prof. Joachim Spatz of Heidelberg University in Germany. This tool consists of a glass micropipette covered with gold nanoparticles and functionalized with a fluorescent ATP-selective aptamer. Upon binding to its target, the aptamer changes conformation to form a hairpin, which brings the fluorophore closer to the plasmonic surface. Using fluorescence microscopy, it is possible to measure the fluorescence quenching resulting from this change of conformation, and thus to quantify the concentration of ATP locally.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||24 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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