Persistance des dommages à l'ADN induits par une irradiation chronique aux rayons ultraviolets B et leurs conséquences dans le génome humain

Authors: Bérubé, Roxanne
Advisor: Rochette, Patrick
Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) rays are known to be the main initiator of skin cancer, as they induce different types of DNA damage, including cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). CPD are mostly produced by UVB rays and are the predominant premutagenic DNA damage responsible for non-melanoma skin cancers. While most CPD are repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, some remain unrepaired and persist in the genome. We recently observed those residual CPD after exposure of human fibroblasts cells to chronic low dose of UVB (CLUV). Then, we aimed to observe the distribution of residual CPD occurring in dividing cells submitted to CLUV irradiation. Human dermal fibroblasts were irradiated with CLUV (75 J/m² every 12h for 7.5 days). Our results showed that residual CPD are tolerated and diluted in the genome by DNA replication. Then, localization of CLUV-induced residual CPD was observed and compared with residual CPD induced by a single and acute UVB irradiation (400 J/m²). Euchromatin and heterochromatin fraction were isolated and the amount of CPD was quantified in each fraction. The quantification showed that residual CPD accumulate mostly in the heterochromatin fraction of the genome, where the amount of CPD was two times greater than in the euchromatin. This suggests that DNA compaction has an impact on CPD accumulation and repair. Then, we measured the frequency of the different types of residual CPD by LC-MS/MS technique. A lower proportion of cytosine containing CPD was found in CLUV irradiated cells than in acute irradiated cells. The quantification of the different types of 6-4 photoproducts (6-4 PP) demonstrated that they were almost all absent after a CLUV irradiation, in the residual damage. Finally, genomic instability was investigated in CLUV irradiated cells by measuring the amount of SCE induced after the irradiation. A higher number of SCE was observed in CLUV-irradiated cells than in control cells, suggesting that residual CPD are responsible for an increase of genomic instability. Overall, we observed that residual CPD, mostly TT-CPD, accumulate in the heterochromatin where they are tolerated. These CPD are diluted during cellular division but they are causing genomic instability. Finally, my project aimed to characterise residual CPD induced by chronic irradiation and to gain more knowledge on their impact in skin carcinogenesis initiation.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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