Investigation sur le débalancement de l'écoulement observé expérimentalement sous la roue d'une turbine Francis

Authors: Heschung, Marine
Advisor: Dumas, GuyDeschênes, Claire
Abstract: This master degree thesis aims at enhancing the numerical prediction of the performance of a hydraulic turbine by quantifying the impact of physical and methodological influencing parameters. To this end, the flow in a turbine characterised by an efficiency drop near the best efficiency point was studied. The latter is associated with a sharp drop in the recovery coefficient of the draft tube, a component known to play a key role in the global performance of the machine. Particular emphasis was placed on the study of the imbalance of the flow at the runner exit, observed following an experimental measurement campaign carried out on the CREMHyG test bench in Grenoble. Indeed, the flow at the runner exit is often considered axisymetric in numerical simulations, a simplification that is not consistent with the experimental data of the case studied in this research project. In order to identify the nature of the imbalance, a critical analysis was conducted on the experimental data. However, no satisfactory conclusion could be drawn since inconsistency between the data obtained by LDV and those obtained by PIV was identified. Considered static, it has been shown that the presence of such an imbalance at the inlet of the draft tube alters considerably the topology of the downstream flow as well as the prediction of the performances. Moreover, some aspects of the simulations obtained with this type of imbalance do not agree with the experimental observations, it is notably the case for the initiation zone of the flow detachment but also for the flow rate imbalance between the two draft tube channels. It has also been shown that the numerical simulations of fixed components upstream of the draft tube, including a large part of the penstock, do not allow to recover the asymmetry of the flow experimentally observed at the exit of the runner. Indeed, the secondary flow, associated with the presence of a bend upstream of the spiral case, proved to have a very little influence on the distribution of the flow in the distributor. The pipe leading to the entrance of the spiral case appears to be long enough for changes made in the velocity profile to become insufficient to disrupt the flow at this place.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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