Amélioration du drainage des sols organiques cultivés ayant des couches compactes

Authors: Lherisson, Renel
Advisor: Caron, JeanGumière, Silvio José
Abstract: Cultivated organic soils are recognized for their excellent agricultural quality. However, the nature of their constitutive materials and physicochemical and mechanical processes associated with their agricultural development make them be susceptible to surface drainage problems over time. Usually, the compacted layers formation which contributes to the stratification of the soil profile gradually limits the soil water infiltration and tend to the formation of perched water table near the soil surface. These observations associated with drainage problems have largely negative impacts on crops which do not tolerate their root system being flooded beyond 48 hours. The purpose of this study was: (1) to describe the soil water movement during two soil drainage events and characterize its main soil hydraulic properties; (2) to characterize the undisturbed cultivated organic soil profile compaction level and (3) to determine the effects of a mechanical soil disturbance techniques in relation to the soil surface drainage improvement. The main results indicated that the van Genuchten hydraulic model describes efficiently the cultivated organic soils water flow and their soil hydraulic properties. They demonstrate that the undisturbed soil profile is compacted and is problematic for surface drainage from 30-cm-deep. They also demonstrate that the disturbance of the soil profile on the drain tile could improve the soil water permeability of the critical areas of the soil profile and the water infiltration. Implementation of a disturbed soil profile over the drain tile significantly improves the soil drainage compared to an undisturbed soil profile and considerably reduces the time to reach field capacity at the soil surface. These results could be useful for further characterization of cultivated organic soil profiles and determination of soil critical areas to take action for improving water infiltration, crops rooting, etc.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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