Étude de l'effet de solutions électro-activées combinées avec des traitements thermiques modérés et de nisine sur l'inactivation des spores de Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679

Authors: El Jaam, Omar
Advisor: Aider, MohammedFliss, Ismaïl
Abstract: The severe heat treatments used for the preservation of foods, especially the canned, is associated with different disadvantages ranging from high energy costs of the process to the deterioration of the nutritional and organoleptic value of the processed foods. Currently, consumers are increasingly turning their attention to the consumption of safe, low-processed foods with high nutritional value and organoleptic value. Thus, in order to meet their needs (requirements) and to minimize the negative effects of the processing technologies, due to the high heat treatments, the search of new food preservation techniques is necessary. Thus, the main aim of this work was to find an alternative method of food preservation in order to produce low-processed foods with respect to two main characteristics: high nutritional value and microbial safety. To reach this objective, four aqueous solutions; namely potassium acetate and potassium citrate with or without KCl added, were electro-activated in an electro-activation reactor composed of three section separated by anion and cation exchange membranes. Once electro-activated, these solutions were combined with moderate heat treatments and nisin at different concentrations. The synergistic activity of all these factors (hurdles) was tested under model conditions and in a food matrix on the inactivation of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores, used as a non-pathogenic surrogate of Clostridium botulinum. First, the selected aqueous solutions were electro-activated at different current intensities (100, 200, 300 and 400 mA) during one hour. For each type of solution, only solutions with the lowest pH and highest oxido-reduction potential (ORP) were selected to be used in the present study. After that, the selected electro-activated solutions were tested, alone and in combination with moderate heat treatments, for their inactivation effect towards C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores under model conditions (direct contact between the electro-activated solutions and the spores). The obtained results showed high effectiveness of these solutions and the detected sporicidal effect was validated by observation under transmission electron microscope. Finally, the efficacy of the combined treatments was tested against C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores in a green bean puree. The obtained results showed some buffering capacity induced by the organic matter of the puree which was able to significantly decrease the degree of inactivation of C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores compared to the effect we detected in the model conditions. The combination of nisin with the electro-activated solutions and moderate heat treatments was able to recover the initial sporicidal activity which was obtained under the model conditions. The final sporicidal activity detected was validated under transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, this study showed that when tested in intact stems of green beans, the sporicidal activity was very high. These results permitted to validate the protective effect induced by the bean puree to the C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores. In conclusion, two combinations that can be successfully used as effective hurdle were selected. The first one is a combination of an electro-activated potassium acetate solution under 400 mA during 60 min, nisin at a concentration of 1000 IU/mL and a moderate heat treatment of 95 °C applied during 15 minutes. The second hurdle consists of combining an electro-activated solution of potassium citrate under 400 mA during 60 min with 1000 IU/ ml of nisin and a heat treatment of 115 °C applied during 15 minutes. Thus, according to the obtained results, it can be suggested that under appropriate canning conditions, the process can be limited to the blanching step which be conducted at 95 °C.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/27798
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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