Études "omiques" du phénomène inflammatoire associé à l'obésité

Authors: Allam-Ndoul, Bénédicte
Advisor: Vohl, Marie-ClaudeBarbier, Olivier
Abstract: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders, which are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. One of the MetS criterions is the presence of abdominal obesity. Since abdominal obesity is associated with MetS, it is important to understand the mechanisms that link these two conditions. A chronic inflammatory state is common among people suffering from obesity and MetS. Modulating the diet is an effective way of reducing this chronic inflammation. The overall global purpose of this PhD project was to study the inflammatory process using OMICs. The sample of participants was composed of 65 subjects of normal weight (NW) without MetS, 83 overweight/obese (Ov/Ob) subjects without MetS and 46 subjects of Ov/Ob with MetS. An analysis of plasma metabolites was done for each participant. Ov/Ob participants, independently of their MetS status had a different metabolite profile from NW participants. The MetS seems to worsen metabolite profiles.Then, we tested the effects of n-3 fatty acids (FAs) on inflammation. The anti-inflammatory action of n-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are well known. However, their mechanism of action is not fully understood. We tested the effect of different doses of EPA and DHA on the expression of genes involved in inflammation in THP-1 macrophages. The results suggest that EPA and DHA regulate the expression of genes involved in inflammation in a dose and FAs n-3 dependant manner.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/27683
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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