Sustainable supply chain network design integrating logistics outsourcing decisions in the context of uncertainties

Authors: Ameknassi, Lhoussaine
Advisor: Ait-Kadi, Daoud
Abstract: The Third-Party Logistics service providers (3PLs) have the potentialities to activate sustainable practices between different partners of a Supply Chain (SC). There exists an optimal level of integrating 3PLs as suppliers of a Focal Company within the SC, to expect for high operational performances. This level leads to distinguish all the logistics activities to outsource from those to perform in-house. Once the outsourced logistics activities are strategically identified, and tactically dimensioned, they need to be performed by appropriate 3PLs to sustain economic, social and environmental performances of the SC. The present thesis develops a holistic approach to design a sustainable supply chain integrating 3PLs, in the context of business and carbon policy uncertainties. First, a two-stage stochastic modelling approach is suggested to optimize both the level of 3PL integration, and of Low Carbon Reduction LCR investment within a climate change resilient SC. Our SC is structured to capture three main SC management issues of the Focal Company FC (e.g. The manufacturer) : Security of Supplies; Distribution Segmentation; and Extended Producer Responsibility. The first-stage of the modelling approach suggests a stochastic plan based scenarios capturing business uncertainties, and proposes a two-objective, multi-period, and multi-product programming model, for minimizing simultaneously, the expected logistics total cost, and the Green House Gas GHG emissions of the whole SC. The run of the model by means of a suggested Epsilon-constraint algorithm leads to a set of Pareto optimal decarbonized SC configurations, before any LCR investment. Each one of these configurations distinguishes the logistics activities to be outsourced, from those to be performed in-house. The second-stage of the modelling approach helps the decision makers to select the best Pareto optimal SC configuration. The concept of internal carbon price is used to establish a stochastic plan of carbon price in the context of a voluntary carbon disclosure regime, and we propose a set of LCR technologies in the freight transportation domain ready to compete for counteracting the uncertain carbon policies. A combinatory model is developed to minimize the total expected cost, under the constraints of; carbon abatement, budget limitation, and LCR investment priorities. The injection of each Pareto optimal solution in the model, and the resolution lead to select the most efficient climate resilient SC configuration, which defines not only the optimal plan of LCR investment, but the optimal level of logistics outsourcing within the SC as well. Secondly, once the outsourced logistics are strategically defined they need to be performed by appropriate 3PLs for supporting the FC to build a Sustainable SC. We suggest the DEA-QFD/Fuzzy AHP-Taguchi Robust Design: a robust integrated selection approach to select the most efficient 3PL candidates. Sustainable criteria, and risks related to business environment are identified, categorized, and ordered. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is reinforced by Analytic Hierarchic Process (AHP), and Fuzzy logic, to consistently determine the relative importance of each decision factor according to the real logistics needs, and business strategies of the FC. Data Envelopment Analysis leads to shorten the list of candidates to only those of comparative efficiencies. The Taguchi Robust Design technique allows to perform a plan of experiment, for determining an ideal candidate named ‘optimum of Taguchi’. This benchmark is used to compare the remainder 3Pls candidates, and the most efficient 3PL is the closest one to this optimum.We are currently conducting a case study of a company that manufactures and markets microwave ovens for validating the two-stage stochastic approach, and certain aspects of its implementation are provided. Finally, an example of selecting a sustainable 3PL, to handle reverse logistics is given for demonstrating the applicability of the integrated & robust approach, and showing its power compared to popular selection approaches. Keywords:Third Party Logistics; Green Supply Chain design; Stochastic Multi-Objective Optimization; Carbon Pricing; Taguchi Robust Design.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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