Étude des effets de contraintes dynamiques sur l'organisation d'échafaudage collagène-cellules

Authors: Lévesque, Lucie
Advisor: Mantovani, D.
Abstract: In the last thirty years, vascular tissue engineering has emerged as an important field in tissue engineering due to a significant clinical need for adequate vascular graft for replacement of small diameter artery. Indeed, the current autologous or synthetic grafts of small diameter present a high failure rate within 5 to 10 years. Despite the efforts injected in the recent years, the clinical translation of engineered artery constructs is far from being successful. One of the challenges encountered in tissue engineering is the control of cellular functions that dictates the maturation of tissue engineering constructs. Furthermore, numerous studies have been conducted on the response of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in 2D under cyclic strain, but a few have examined the effect of cyclic strain on SMCs in 3D to optimize the control strategies of bioreactors for tissue maturation and generation. Thus, this research project aims to study the effects of cyclic mechanical stimuli on cellularised collagen scaffolds. Collagen has been used as a scaffold due to its excellent biological properties and since it is found in the wall of physiological arteries. A system for imposing cyclic mechanical stimuli in 2D to 3D cellularised collagen constructs was therefore developed. The cyclic stresses revealed a preferential orientation of the cells in the direction of the strain, as well as an orientation by the cells of the collagen fibrils in the same direction. Moreover, the remodeling performed by the cells led to an improvement of the viscoelastic properties of the construct and to a mechanical behavior similar to the saphenous vein under stress-relaxation. The cells also shown a desensitization to cyclic mechanical stimuli. Thus, this research allowed to answer some of the questions related to cellular behavior in a 3D environment under mechanical stimulation. Deepening our knowledge of cell behavior in 3D environment under cyclic mechanical stimuli remains a key challenge in obtaining regenerated artery with similar physiological properties than native arteries.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/27637
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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