La génomique, un outil de gestion prometteur pour la gestion des pêches : le cas du homard d’Amérique, Homarus americanus, dans l’Est du Canada

Authors: Benestan, Laura
Advisor: Bernatchez, LouisRochette, Rémy
Abstract: The American lobster, Homarus americanus, supports the largest commercial fishery in Eastern Canada and has therefore become a priority species in terms of conservation and management. This thesis aimed to gain important knowledge about the genetic structure and adaptive potential of H. americanus using a multidisciplinary approach, combining population genomics and marine ecology. Our first goal was to identify genetic units and assess their correspondence to the 41 management units presently in use. Our results revealed the presence of two regional entities (north/south), with at a finer scale, 11 genetically distinguishable populations. We also demonstrated that it was possible to identify the origin of individuals blindly, with an average of 90% individuals correctly reassigned to the regional genetic unit where they were sampled. This high assignment success, unexpected for a marine species, could be used as a relevant traceability tool. Next, we assessed the impacts of environmental factors such as spatial distribution, ocean circulation and sea surface temperature on the previously identified genetic structure. We showed that ocean currents had a greater effect on the putatively neutral genetic structure than spatial distribution. On the other hand, annual minimum temperature appeared to explain a significant portion of the putatively adaptive genetic variation, and this signal persisted even after subtracting the influence of the spatial distribution. Finally, we explored the influence of sex ratio and sex-linked markers on the analyses of genetic structure of high gene flow species, here the American lobster. We found 12 sex-linked markers from which we inferred a probable genetic mechanism of sex determination of the American lobster and characterized its molecular basis. Overall, the results of this thesis illustrate the potential of a genomic approach as a new tool for the sustainable management of American lobster in Canadian waters.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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