Optimisation de la production d'amandes par la gestion de l'irrigation en temps réel
|Advisor:||Caron, Jean; Gallichand, Jacques|
|Abstract:||The present study was divided in two parts. The first part consisted in evaluating the effect on almond yield, water consumption and plant response of four different triggering irrigation treatments. Three of these treatments were based on soil water tension thresholds (SWTT) (wet (-35 kPa), medium (-45 kPa), dry (-55 kPa)) whereas the fourth was established according to the current techniques used by the producer which mainly relied on the calculation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc). The experiment was performed over the months of May to August from 2012 to 2015 in 16 rows of 22 Nonpareil almond trees. The rows were subdivided in four blocks of four treatments. Within each treatment of the second block, three tensiometers were installed at three different depths: 25, 50 and 75 cm. Irrigation of each treatment was remotely controlled to never exceed the prescribed SWTTs. The results show that irrigation based on a SWTT of -45 kPa from May to harvest (mid-August) allows saving 20% of water without decreasing yield. These results also indicate that a wet management (-35 kPa) would negatively affect yield just as much as a dry management (-55 kPa). The second part of the study consisted in adjusting the SWTT of -45 kPa found in part one according to spatiotemporal variability and economic aspects related to soil water tension measurement. The experiment was performed from the end of June to the end of July 2015 in a 30-ha field. The trials included 27 stations of two tensiometers (25 and 50 cm) uniformly located throughout the field within tree rows of the Nonpareil variety. The analyses and the simulations indicate that it would be economically advantageous to use 5 stations and to irrigate when the average of the soil water tensions at 25 and 50 cm of the 5 stations reaches -45 kPa.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||24 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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