Rôle du microARN-132 dans la maladie d'Alzheimer et les tauopathies connexes

Authors: Smith, Pascal
Advisor: Hébert, Sébastien
Abstract: Dementia affects millions of people worldwide and the most common form is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). After more than a century of research, there is no efficient cure for this neurodegenerative disease. There are two pathological hallmarks : senile plaques formed by beta-amyloid peptide deposits and neurofibrillary tangles composed of a hyperphosphorylated and aggregated protein called tau. Tau pathology is also found in twenty neurodegenerative diseases called tauopathies. Studies have shown that miRNA expression profiles are deregulated in post-mortem brain tissues of patients. Of interest, miRNA-132 (miR-132) was the most downregulated. To understand the role of miRNAs in AD, my main goal was to study the involvement of miR-132 in tau regulation using in vitro tools and transgenic mice. We have identified a splicing factor, PTBP2 which affects tau exon inclusion. This factor is upregulated in a subset group of tauopathic patients, (progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)). The miR-132 level reduction was also correlated with the PTBP2 upregulation in this cohort of patients. In the second study, we have demonstrated that learning, memory formation and retention are altered in a miR-132 knockout mouse model. Finally, we have found that a long-term loss of miR-132 promotes tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation in AD mice. We have demonstrated that tau is a direct target of miR-132 and their expression levels in human correlate with different cognitive test scores from in AD patients. Finally, we have developed a miR-132-based therapeutic strategy in the AD mouse brain with promising results. Taken together, these results have contributed to the better understanding of complex neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2016
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/27549
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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