Développement d'outils pour l'imagerie de l'activité neuronale - des épines au comportement

Authors: Dupont-Therrien, Olivier
Advisor: Côté, DanielDe Koninck, Paul
Abstract: Due to the scale of the observed structures and behaviours, neurosciences and microscopy have always been intertwined. Whether it is to observe the different cell morphologies in transmitted white light, or to follow complex dynamics using fluorescent probes, light is the tool of choice to study the brain and its composition. Specifically, the light has the proper spatial and temporal resolution to probe both locally and globally all levels of neuronal activity, while remaining minimally invasive. This thesis shows three techniques developed for different scales, in order to push the limits of the currently addressable biological questions by neuroscientists. In order to effectively probe the internal mechanisms for small structures like dendritic spines and dendrites, we have created a single-cell labeling protocol of the voltage-sensitive fluorophore ANNINE-6plus. The method is based on the intracellular loading of the fluorescent probe in samples both in dissociated cell cultures, than in preparations of acute and organotypic slices. The second project addresses the challenges of rapid imaging of the cellular network activity. Typically, there is a choice between the temporal resolution and the imaging surface. This choice is that the fast imaging techniques are usually widefield and do not provide optical sectioning, making their use in thick samples difficult. By combining a widefield multiphoton technique, the temporal focusing, with the structured illumination and an amplified laser, we have developed a widefield system with an optical sectioning below 10um. The third chapter describes the development of two software distributed with a product created by Doric Lenses Inc., an implantable miniature microscope for imaging of deep brain structures of freely moving animals. This product finally provides a link between the local neuronal activity, and the observed animal behaviours.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2017
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/27491
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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