Étude du rôle de la voie ERK/MAPK dans le développement embryonnaire chez la souris
|Abstract:||Mammals possess two MAP kinase kinase (MEK1 and MEK2), involved in ERK/MAPK pathway. This pathway is essential for proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. The first objective of my thesis was to determinate if MEK1 and MEK2 kinases are redundant during embryonic development. Mek1-/- mice die at embryonic day E10.5 due to placental defects, whereas Mek2-/- mice survive with a normal lifespan suggesting that MEK1 possesses functions not shared by MEK2. However, most Mek1+/-Mek2+/- embryos also die from placental defects, indicating that both Mek genes contribute to placental development. To date, no clear evidence on MEK1 and MEK2 redundancy has been provided. To assess the functional specificity of the Mek1 and Mek2 genes, we produced a Mek1-knockin allele in which the Mek2 coding sequences were placed under the control of Mek1 regulatory sequences. Analyzing these mice allowed us to demonstrate that MEK1 and MEK2 can substitute for each other and that a minimal amount of MEK is critical for placenta development and embryo survival. The second objective of my thesis was to characterize Mp1 mutants. Scaffold proteins modulate MAPK pathway by providing spatial and temporal specificity. Among known ERK/MAPK scaffold proteins, only MP1 (Mek Partner 1) is specific to MEK1 and ERK1, raising the question of the specificity of MP1 in the regulation of ERK/MAPK pathway via MEK1. In order to investigate Mp1 function in vivo, we generated Mp1 knock-out mice. Analyzing these mice enable us to suggest that Mp1 is required for embryonic development and is essential during post-implantation. Deregulation of Ras/MAPK pathway also causes developmental phenotypes in human. During the last decade, a new class of syndromes, which share common phenotypes such as mutations in Ras/MAPK pathway, cranio-facial dysmorphology, cardiac and cutaneous malformations and neurological delay has been described and named Rasophaties. Among the DNA mutations found in rasopathies, the Mek1 mutation, Mek1Y130C, causes cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). The last objective of my thesis was to generate a mouse model of CFC, with the Mek1Y130C mutation. I found that mice carrying the Mek1Y130C mutation partially recapitulate CFC syndrome (i.e pulmonary stenosis, crani-facial dysmophia and neurological defects).|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||24 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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