Trois essais sur l'impact des incitatifs financiers sur la productivité du système de la santé au Québec

Authors: El Ghali, Nizar
Advisor: Fortin, BernardLacroix, Guy
Abstract: Financial incentives in health network system are supposed to have an effect on the behaviour of the different healthcare stakeholders : physicians, patients, facilities managers. They may be proposed as funding models such as activity based funding or best practice paiement or rewards / financial penalties offered / applied according to outcome indicators achieved and compared to targets. Financial incentives could be linked directly to the healthcare facility funding or to medical payments or both. The impact of these levers has been little tested in the Quebec context. The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the literature of financial incentives impact assessment on various aspects of healthcare system productivity in Quebec. The latter being a public system characterized by a governance coordinated by the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MSSS). Network funding models being based on global budget while the healthcare professionnels paiement is mainly based on fees for services. Both budgets are distinct and the physician takes self-employed status. In the first chapter, we assess for the causal effect of the first Quebec activity based funding program, access to surgery program, on access to services and healthcare quality. Using Quebec administrative data, a control group ( similar data from British Columbia ) and a difference in difference approach, we show that this program, introduced in 2004 for the surgery sector in all facilities, reduced waiting times and hospital lengths of stay, especially for hip and knee replacements, without deterioration in some healthcare quality indicators. In addition, the effect of this funding is not only positive but also increases with funding level. In the second chapter, we estimate the causal effect of the introduction of a colorectal cancer screening program for some pilot facilities. Using data from untreated hospitals as control group and a multistate model, we show the positive impact of this program on the healthcare quality and population health. Introduced at the beginning as a clinical strategy and combined later with recurrent performance payments, the program has contributed to the decrease of hospital lengths of stay with home discharge and also lower treatment costs for colorectal surgeries. Contrary to the results of the first chapter, this analysis did not demonstrate a positive effect of financial incentives on lower lengths of stay. This may be due to the short duration of our sample since the date of additional funding announcement. On the other side, financial incentives contributed to increased use of a less invasive treatment approach. In the last chapter, we perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of this healthcare quality program to identify the relevance of continuing implementing the strategy based on clinical protocols and additional funding. We demonstrate that the benefit-cost ratio of clinical strategy ( screening tests and clinical protocol ) is not only greater than unity but also higher than the program including the additional funding ratio. These results suggest a review of the financial incentives strategy for this program. In this thesis , we show how financial incentives can help behaviour move and improve certain productivity aspects in the healthcare system. The financial levers have been able to influence the physicians behaviour, in most situations, although they are not directly related to their payments. This reflects a way of behaving for physicians that is not yet fully known but is certainly not disconnected from facilities financial context. Finally, these financial levers must be used in the general framework of a clinical strategy providing a minimum level of success conditions and achievement of objectives. They can not act alone in the direction of the goal but certainly they should be consistent with any clinical strategy especially when based on clinical-administrative partnership.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2016
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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