Relations entre la composition du lait et les facteurs alimentaires dans les troupeaux laitiers québécois
|Authors:||Fadul Pacheco, Liliana|
|Advisor:||Charbonneau, Édith; Chouinard, Yvan|
|Abstract:||The objective of this thesis was to establish the relationship between diet and milk composition, focusing on the milk fat concentration (MFC), milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and nitrogen use efficiency. For the MFC, mainly, the relationship between this component and the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) was studied. A database including 2 142 dairy herds from Québec was used to carry out multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship between the diet composition, including DCAD, and the MFC. With the model built, it was possible to predict between 32 and 66% of the variation of MFC depending on the stage of lactation. Despite several interactions found, an increase in the DCAD, palmitic acid supplementation and distribution in total mixed ration had a positive relationship with MFC. Whereas an increase in the proportion of concentrate had a negative effect on the MFC. The models built showed the importance of feeding management and diet composition on MFC. In addition, it showed that DCAD should be taken into account for diet formulation. In a second study, the same database was used to identify nutritional factors that may affect MUN. Contrary to what is reported in the literature, positive but also negative correlations between MUN and dietary crude protein concentration within herds on a 36-month period were obtained. To better understand these relationships, results of diet composition and performance of 100 herds with positive correlations (r > 0.69) and 100 herds with negative correlations (r < -0.44) between MUN and crude protein concentration of the diet were compared. Results showed no differences between the groups for diet composition and for performance.Which suggested that there are other than nutritional factors that can affect MUN. Results from this study did not allow to pinpoint a better context of utilization for MUN as a tool for feeding management. These results raise questions on the validity of this type of dataset for specific nutritional evaluation. Considering the results of the previous study, the last project was to better understand the characteristics of the herds with different nitrogen use efficiency by using more reliable data. Thus, 100 Québec dairy herds were visited to collect data of production, feed intake and management practices. Herds were then divided in four groups by a cluster analysis according to their nitrogen use efficiency. The comparison between these groups showed that herds with greater nitrogen use efficiency had higher average milk yield per cow. Regarding feeding strategies, more efficient herds had more energy but less crude protein in their diets than the herds of the less efficient groups. The result of the analysis also showed the importance of the dry matter intake in the nitrogen use efficiency, because herds in the greater efficiency groups had a lower intake. Although, MUN was different between the group with the high efficiency and the low efficiency, the lack of a perfect concordance between MUN and the nitrogen efficiency and between MUN and dietary crude protein may have been due in part to the small difference in the nitrogen efficiency between the two intermediate groups. Finally, in addition of reducing the risk of nitrogen pollution, herds in the higher efficiency groups had the higher incomes over feed costs. There is therefore also an economic incentive to improve nitrogen use efficiency on farms.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||24 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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