Conception d'un mécanisme déployable à grand ratio d'expansion et de son système d'actionnement par roues d'inertie pour applications spatiales
|Abstract:||This thesis presents the design of deployable mechanisms for space applications and means of actuation for the control of their deployment and the attitude control of their satellite base. For this purpose, the triangular geometry is selected as a planar deployable basic unit to tessellate any surface. Each such module needs to achieve a high expansion ratio. From the literature, planar mechanisms based only on rigid links and developed for deployable Platonic solids are optimized and adapted for open geometries such as a cupola. The resulting expansion ratio is above 5, but the corresponding prototype shows instability of the deployment movement close to the retracted position. The paradigm of power transmission is revised to reduce the sensitivity of the mechanism to its internal transmission angles. The novel solution, based on timing belts, can achieve expansion ratios above 20 in particular configurations. The influence of the principal geometric parameters of design on the expansion ratio is discussed to allow the derivation of a simple optimization relation. The optimization can be performed to adapt this mechanism to different contexts of application. In order to further improve the compactness of the mechanism for transport purposes, a novel joint is presented, allowing two successive phases of rotation on non parallel axes. This way the triangular units can be piled before being deployed. The deployment of a large surface in orbit is prone to impact the spacecraft attitude and maybe its course. Hence, control strategies are proposed to manage these effects. Since the deployment targets a large surface, its edges are far from the centre of mass and are advantageous to induce torque from the linear motion of point masses. The dynamic equations are derived based on the conservation of the angular momentum and the resulting matrix form of the equation set is used to simulate the system and assess its performances. The results validate the strategy for orientation control without obstruction of the spacecraft central space, but a flywheel of equivalent mass still outperforms this design. Redundant actuation by flywheel on each link of a multibody mechanism composed only of passive revolute joints is presented. The dynamic equations are derived for a two-body architecture and a four-bar planar mechanism. The closed-loop control of the four-bar mechanism is using a PD controller to achieve the control of a scissor mechanism unit. The results are then extended to a four-bar spherical mechanism and its simulation demonstrates the potential of this strategy for the control of both the configuration and the orientation of a spatial mechanism. A two-body prototype, linked by a passive revolute joint, is manufactured and controlled with visual tracking feedback. The results confirm that the system is controllable in orientation and configuration. This thesis ends with a case study for the application of the main components developed in this research. The capture of small to medium sized orbital debris is introduced. The triangular deployable unit based on timing belts is replicated in order to create a cupola of hundreds of metres to catch and slow down the debris. The parameters of such a mission are detailed as well as the flywheel potential to control the spacecraft attitude on top of the mechanism deployment. It is estimated that almost 2000 pieces of debris can be removed from the orbit at 819 km altitude in a one year mission.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||24 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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