Étude de la guérison des plaies cornéennes grâce à la cornée reconstruite par génie tissulaire

Authors: Couture, Camille
Advisor: Germain, LucieGuérin, Sylvain
Abstract: The cornea is located at the outer surface of the eye and its transparency is required to allow light transmission to the retina. However, because of its location, the cornea is subjected to chemical and mechanical injuries. Corneal wound healing is a complex mechanism involving many processes such as cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In the present study, we used a tissue-engineered, two-layers (epithelium and stroma) human cornea as a biomaterial to study both the cellular and molecular mechanisms of wound healing, more specifically the ECM remodeling exerted by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Gene profiling on microarrays revealed important alterations in the pattern of genes expressed by tissue-engineered corneas in response to wound healing. Expression of many MMPs-encoding genes was shown by microarray and qPCR analyses to increase in the migrating epithelium of wounded corneas. Many of these enzymes were converted into their enzymatically active form as wound closure proceeded. In addition, expression of MMPs by human corneal epithelial cells was affected both by the stromal fibroblasts and the collagen-enriched ECM they produce. Most of all, results from mass spectrometry analyses provided evidence that a fully stratified epithelium is required for proper synthesis and organization of the ECM on which the epithelial cells adhere. This study will improve our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that modulate human corneal wound healing by exploiting a new, innovative 3D reconstructed tissue much closer to the native cornea. It is likely that our study will lead to the development of novel therapies for the treatment of many corneal disorders.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2016
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/27112
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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