Organisation chimioanatomique des afférences pallidales chez le primate
|Advisor:||Parent, Martin; Parent, André|
|Abstract:||A better understanding of the place that the brainstem serotoninergic (5-HT), cholinergic (ACh) and dopaminergic (DA) projections occupy in the anatomical and functional organization of the primate external (GPe) and internal (GPi) globus pallidus within the basal ganglia is primordial to enhance our comprehension of this complex neuronal system involved in the control of motor behaviors. The present thesis reports novel neuroanatomical findings gathered in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) using immunohistochemical labelings and the stereological quantification approach to determine the distribution and ultrastructural features of the 5-HT, ACh and DA axon varicosities observed in the monkey pallidum. Our findings have led to the elaboration of a new model of the pallidal neuron based on a precise knowledge of the hierarchy and neurochemical features of its various synaptic inputs. Quantitative analyses at the light microscopic level reveal that the GPe and GPi receive heterogeneously distributed 5-HT, ACh and DA innervations in variable densities. More precisely, the GPe is innervated by 600,000 5-HT varicosities/mm3 of tissue, 500,000 ACh varicosities/mm3 and 170,000 DA varicosities/mm3. In contrast, the GPi receives 600,000 5-HT varicosities/mm3, 250,000 ACh varicosities/mm3 and 190,000 DA varicosities/mm3. Furthermore, the 5-HT, ACh and DA innervations preferentially target sectors corresponding to the associative and limbic pallidal functional territories, suggesting that these brainstem inputs are involved in the planification of motor behavior, more than in its execution, and in the regulation of attention and mood. Electron microscopic analyses reveal that very few of these axon varicosities establish genuine synaptic contacts, since more than 70% of these axon varicosities are devoid of any synaptic junction. Hence, even though the 5-HT, ACh and DA innervations can directly modulate pallidal neurons through synaptic delivery, the vast majority use volume transmission to influence both pallidal neurons and their major afferents from the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus. Altogether, these results indicate that the 5-HT, ACh and DA projections act in concert with the more robust striatopallidal and subthalamopallidal inputs. Our novel neuroanatomical data suggest that these brainstem projections are ideally positioned to act as major modulators of the primate globus pallidus. The understanding of the relation between the brainstem and the basal ganglia is a prerequisite for the development of new therapeutics avenues for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders involving the basal ganglia network, such as Parkinson’s disease.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||24 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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