Modulateurs intégrés sur silicium pour la transmission de signaux à modulation d'amplitude multi-niveau
|Abstract:||In recent years, silicon photonics has developed quickly. Modulators coming from this technology show potentially interesting characteristics for short reach communication systems. In fact, these modulators are expected to reach high transmission speeds, while limiting the fabrication cost and the systems power consumption. At the same time, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) is promising for this type of systems. Thus, this work focuses on the development of silicon modulators for the transmission of PAM signals. In the first chapter, the necessary theoretical concepts to silicon modulators designing are presented. Mach-Zehnder modulators and Bragg grating modulators are the main focus of this section. Moreover, the theory surrounding electro-optical effects in silicon, PAM modulation, integrated electrodes and digital signal processing is detailed. In the second chapter, a segmented Mach-Zehnder modulator is presented. The electrodes segmentation enables optical PAM signals generation using binary signaling. This approach eliminates the need for an external digital-to-analog converter by integrating this function in the optical domain, in order to try to lower the communication system cost. This chapter contains a detailed modulator description, optical and electrical characterization results and system tests. Furthermore, the system tests include the application of pre-compensation and post-compensation to the signal by equalizing its frequency response for PAM-4 and PAM-8 modulation formats at different binary rates. A transmission speed of 30 Gb/s is demonstrated in both cases, despite the limited frequency response obtained after the RF circuit packaging was added (8 GHz 3 dB bandwidth). This is the first PAM-8 modulation demonstration using a segmented Mach-Zehnder modulator. Finally, the conclusions from this work have led to a second segmented Mach-Zehnder modulator design currently under test, whose performances are showing great potential. In the third chapter, a dual phase-shift Bragg grating modulator is presented. The use of Bragg gratings for modulation is an approach still largely unexplored. Indeed, the spectral response of these structures can be precisely controlled; an interesting characteristic for modulators. In this work, we propose to add two phase-shifts to a uniform Bragg grating to create a sensitive transmission peak in its reflection band. Thus, the transmission peak amplitude can be changed with the help of a pn junction. Similarly to the second chapter, this chapter includes a detailed modulator description, optical and electrical characterization results and system tests. Additionally, the pn junction characterization using the Bragg grating modulator is explained. Transmission speed up to 60 Gb/s PAM-4 and 55 Gb/s OOK are demonstrated after the compensation of the signal distortions. To our knowledge, this is the fastest Bragg grating modulator demonstrated to the day. urthermore, for the first time, the performances of a Bragg grating modulator are approaching those of the typically faster micro-ring or Mach-Zehnder silicon modulators.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||24 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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