Vaisseau sanguin reconstruit par génie tissulaire : développement d'une nouvelle approche pour la reconstruction de la media et interaction avec les microparticules

Authors: Bourget, Jean-Michel
Advisor: Germain, LucieVeres, Teodor
Abstract: The pathological processes that result in the development of atherosclerostic lesions take place in the vascular media layer. This condition is responsible for half of cardiovascular associated fatalities. The development of a tissue-engineered blood vessel can contribute to the in vitro study of the human media in a 3-dimensional environment. This blood vessel can also be used as a prosthesis for arterial bypasses. The work presented here focus on the reconstructed vascular media as a pharmacological model and a potential vascular substitute. The vascular media reconstructed by self-assembly was used to study the interactions between this layer and circulating microparticles (MPs). We demonstrated that the adventitia layer can influence the response of the media to T-Lymphocytes derived MPs. Next, we investigated the influence of MPs isolated from whole blood of septic shock patients (SMPs), on the human engineered media. This study demonstrated that the SMPs decrease nitric oxide (NO) production and increase interleukin-10 (IL-10) messenger RNA in the media layer. Incubation of reconstructed media with this anti-inflammatory cytokine blocks the hyporeactivity induced by lipopolysaccharides. This finding was confirmed in vivo, in rodents. Therefore, the elevation of MP levels in sepsis is potentially probeneficial to the cardiovascular function in this pathology. We then investigated the feasibility of improving the reconstructed media in order to facilitate the physiopathological studies of this layer and improve the potential of a smooth muscle cell (SMC)-containing substitutes to be implanted in human. Therefore, the self-assembly approach was used to generate an extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold, produced in vitro by fibroblasts, in which SMCs can be seeded. After a week of culture in a decellularised matrix scaffold, the SMC-containing sheets were rolled around a mandrel to form a media layer. This engineered media demonstrated an increase mechanical resistance and contractility as compared with the original technique. Finally, we created an anisotropic ECM scaffold that can direct the orientation of SMCs to reproduce the physiological orientation of that layer. Reconstructed media produced using those anisotropic scaffolds were more resistant and contractile than the ones reconstructed using isotropic scaffolds. These improvements will facilitate the reconstruction of a media layer using pathological cells from patients and could lead to more representative pharmacological study of this layer. Moreover, this scaffold will facilitate the clinical translation of the model from bench to bedside.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2014
Open Access Date: 24 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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