Étude de l'expression des microARNs et des enzymes de synthèse des corticostéroïdes dans le développement pulmonaire
|Advisor:||Tremblay, Yves; Provost, Pierre|
|Abstract:||Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn (RDS) is one of the most common diseases affecting preterm babies. RDS is caused by a deficiency in the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant as a result of lung immaturity caused by a premature birth. Several elements and factors regulate lung development including sex steroids and corticosteroids and the sex of the infant. In fact, boys are more affected than girls by RDS. This sexual dimorphism is attributed to the presence of androgens in male lungs. In contrast, corticosteroids are given to mother at higher risk to deliver prematurely to promote antenatal lung maturation of the fetuses. As other factors, it has been shown that microRNAs are essential to lung development. This led us to study the impact of androgen on the expression profile of microRNAs in the transition period between canalicular and saccular stages (gestational day (GD)17.0 and GD18.0). This period overlap the surge of surfactant synthesis in the mouse. First, we studied the stability of normalization genes (snoRNAs) to quantify microRNAs by qPCR. This analysis was performed by 3 methods of calculation at several stages of lung development from the pseudoglandular to the alveolar stages and this for both sexes. We identified the best combinations of the most stable normalization genes for each individual developmental stage studied as well as for the period covering all the studied stages. Then, we analyzed the expression profile of microRNAs on GD17.0 and GD18.0 in male fetuses whose mothers were treated with flutamide (pure anti-androgen). The results showed that 43 mature microRNAs are modulated by endogenous androgens on GD17.0 whereas 35 microRNAs on GD18.0. We have identified some microRNAs and potential targets that are inversely modulated by androgens compared with microRNAs. These targets are involved in several biological processes such as lipid metabolism and cell proliferation as well as in molecular functions such as transcription factor binding. Validation experiments were performed by qPCR. Our results showed that androgens regulate processes that may be involved in lung maturation via the regulation of microRNAs. In addition to the interest in the impact of androgens on lung maturation, we analyzed the expression of corticosteroid synthesis enzymes in the human fetal lung. Expression of the CYP21A2 and the presence of its corresponding 21-hydroxylase enzyme have been studied by qPCR and immunoblot. Also mRNA localization of this key enzyme in the synthesis of glucocorticoids has been also assessed by in situ hybridization. CYP21A2 mRNA was detected by qPCR in all the 34 analyzed samples, whose ages ranged between 17 and 40 weeks of pregnancy. No correlation with gestational age or sex was observed. Significant levels of 21-hydroxylase protein were detected in our samples. We investigated the expression of other enzymes involved in the pathway of glucocorticoid synthesis including CYP11B1, CYP11B2 and CYP17A1. CYP11B1, CYP11B2 mRNA were not detected in our samples, unlike CYP17A1 whose mRNA was detected in all our analyzed fetal tissues. CYP17A1 protein was detected at low levels. In situ hybridization data showed that CYP21A2 expression is localized almost exclusively in the distal epithelium of human fetal lung. Our results suggest that 21-hydroxylase products act via an intracrine action on the distal epithelium by activating the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) at this site does not seem to depend on the 21-hydroxylase products due to the large amounts of circulating aldosterone.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||24 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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