Développement d'une matrice prébiotique pour l'encapsulation des probiotiques bactériocinogènes, destinée à l'alimentation animale : de la physicochimie à la biopharmacie
|Advisor:||Subirade, Muriel; Fliss, Ismaïl|
|Abstract:||Antibioresistance is a major public health issue, principally caused by the abusive use of antibiotics in farming. Probiotics are a potential alternative to antibiotics. However, delivering them alive and functional to the colon is a great challenge because of the pH and bile salts faced within the gastrointestinal tract. This work aims to develop a prebiotic matrix able maintain the probiotics alive and active during the gastrointestinal transit and able to release them in the colon. To reach this objective, five types of beads (A, AI5, AI10, AI15, AI20) were made of inulin (0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 %) and alginate (2%) by extrusion/ionotropic gelation method. Three probiotic strains were used during the conception of the beads: Pediococcus acidilactici UL5 (UL5), Lactobacillus reuteri (LR) and Lactobacillus salivarius (LS). Firstly, all the formulations underwent physicochemical and microbiologic characterizations. These first characterizations revealed high yields of the inulin trapped in the beads. They also revealed the homogeneous distribution of inulin and alginate inside the matrix and demonstrated that the encapsulation did not affect the viability and the antimicrobial activity of the used strains. In the light of these results, the A, AI5 and AI20 formulations were chosen to continue the study. Secondly, the mucoadhesiveness and the behaviour of the A, AI5 and AI20 within the upper parts of the intestinal tract were studied. These studies demonstrated that the presence of inulin improve the mucoadhesiveness of the beads. They also demonstrated that only the AI5 formulation was able to resist until the end of the digestion. This behaviour was partly explained by the interaction of the alginate and the inulin found by the FTIR. This interaction was stable for the AI5 beads in pH 6.8 but unstable for the AI20 formulation. Finally, the behaviour and the bacterial dynamics of the AI5 formulation in the fermented and unfermented colonic medium were studied. This study revealed that the AI5 beads were degraded and released all of the bacteria after around 4 hours in the fermented medium. This degradation is probably due to the enzymes abundantly present in this medium. In conclusion, the abilities of AI5 formulation to protect the bacteria in the upper parts of the digestive tract and to release them to the colon can be affirmed. It could be used for an application in animal feeding.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||24 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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