Expression de la dystrophine humaine dans le Tibialis anterior de souris Rag/mdx suite à une greffe de cellules myogéniques dérivées d'hiPSCs dystrophiques et corrigées génétiquement

Authors: Gravel, William-Édouard
Advisor: Tremblay, Jacques-P.
Abstract: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have shown self-renewal capacity and can potentially differentiate into all types of cell lineages. They represent an unlimited source of cells for the therapy of degenerative diseases, such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a disease characterized by a rapid degeneration of muscles that starts early in life. Dystrophic hiPSCs have been corrected by our collaborator, Dr. Hotta, by inserting of a single base pair in the exon 45 with Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) to restore the reading frame of the gene. Our laboratory has developed a two-step procedure to differentiate hiPSCs into myogenic cells. We first used a myogenic culture medium especially developped in the laboratory (called MB-1) to promote the differentiation of hiPSCs into mesenchymal-like precursor cells. We next transduced them with a lentivirus expressing the myogenic transcription factor MyoD under the control of the composite CAG promoter, in order to induce their differentiation into myoblasts. Transduced cells have been grafted in the Tibialis anterior muscle of Rag/mdx mice where they fused with existing muscle fibers. The presence of the human dystrophin protein has been confirmed by immunohistofluorescence in muscles grafted with the genetically corrected cells and in a control graft with myoblasts of a healthy donor. Cell therapy shows great promises for DMD patients since it allows the expression of a normal gene capable of producing a functional dystrophin in muscle fibers and increase the regenerative capacity of the muscle and the muscle strength.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2016
Open Access Date: 23 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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