3D visualization of cadastre : assessing the suitability of visual variables and enhancement techniques in the 3D model of condominium property units
|Advisor:||Pouliot, Jacynthe; Hubert, Frédéric|
|Abstract:||3D visualization is being widely used in GIS (geographic information system) and CAD (computer-aided design) applications. It has also been introduced in cadastre studies to better communicate overlaps to the viewer, where the property units vertically stretch over or cover one part of the land parcel. Researchers believe that 3D visualization could provide viewers with a more intuitive perception, and it has the capability to demonstrate overlapping property units in condominiums unambiguously. However, 3D visualization has many challenges compared with 2D visualization. Many cadastre researchers adopted 3D visualization without thoroughly investigating the potential users, the visual tasks for decision-making, and the appropriateness of their representation design. Neither designers nor users may be aware of the risk of producing an inadequate 3D visualization, especially in an era when 3D visualization is relatively novel in the cadastre domain. With a general aim to improve the 3D visualization of cadastre data, this dissertation addresses the design of the 3D cadastre model from a graphics semiotics viewpoint including visual variables and enhancement techniques. The research questions are, firstly, what is the suitability of the visual variables and enhancement techniques in the 3D cadastre model to support the intended users' decision-making goal of delimitating condominium property units, and secondly, what are the perceptual properties of visual variables in 3D visualization compared with 2D visualization? This dissertation firstly identifies the theoretical framework for the interpretation of visual variables in 3D visualization as well as cadastre-related knowledge with literature review. Then, we carry out a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of visual variables and enhancement techniques in a form of an expert-group review. With the result of the preliminary evaluation, this research then performs the hypothetico-deductive scientific approach to establishing a list of hypotheses to be validated by empirical tests regarding the suitability of visual variables and enhancement techniques in a cartographic representation of property units in condominiums for 3D visualization. The evaluation is based on the usability specification, which contains three measurements: effectiveness, efficiency, and preference. Several empirical tests are conducted with cadastral users in the forms of face-to-face interviews and online questionnaires, followed by statistical analysis. Size, shape, brightness, saturation, hue, orientation, texture, and transparency are the most discussed and used visual variables in existing cartographic research and implementations; thus, these eight visual variables have been involved in the tests. Their perceptual properties exhibited in the empirical test with concrete 3D models in this work are compared with those in a 2D visualization, which is derived from a literature-based synthesis. Three enhancement techniques, including labeling, 3D explosion, and highlighting, are tested as well. There are three main outcomes of this work. First, we established a list of visual tasks adapted to notaries for delimiting property units in the context of 3D visualization of condominium cadastres. Second, we describe the suitability of eight visual variables (Size, Shape, Brightness, Saturation, Hue, Orientation, Texture, and Transparency) of the property units and three enhancement techniques (labeling, 3D explosion and highlighting) in the context of 3D visualisation of condominium property units, based on the usability specification for delimitating visual tasks. For example, brightness only shows good performance in helping users distinguish private and common parts in the context of 3D visualization of property units in condominiums. As well, color hue and saturation are effective and preferable. The third outcome is a statement of the perceptual properties’ differences of visual variables between 3D visualization and 2D visualization. For example, according to Bertin (1983)’s definition, orientation is associative and selective in 2D, yet it does not perform in a 3D visualization. In addition, 3D visualization affects the performance of brightness, making it marginally dissociative and selective.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||23 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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