Identification d'un complexe de dégradation des microARNs chez le nématode Caenorhabditis elegans

Authors: Bossé, Gabriel
Advisor: Simard, Martin
Abstract: In all metazoans, microRNAs play a critical role in the regulation of genes implicated in cell proliferation and differentiation. These small non-coding RNAs form a silencing complex called miRISC and alter protein synthesis upon binding mRNA untranslated regions (UTRs). miRNAs are transcribed by RNA Pol II as a long transcript call the pri-miRNA. The pri-miRNA will go through two steps of cleavage to form the mature miRNA. This mature miRNA is then loaded onto an Argonaute protein to form the effector complex; the miRISC. Each step of miRNA biogenesis is tightly regulated. Recently, miRNA production and stability have been shown to be an important step in this pathway. Several proteins, such as p53, can modulate microRNA biogenesis and many other proteins are implicated in miRNA stabilization and degradation. A tight control of these regulatory RNA is essential since miRNA misregulation is associated with several diseases. Here we identified the ortholog of human decapping enzyme DcpS (DCS-1) as an important regulator of miRNA level in C. elegans by forming a degradation complex with XRN-1, idependantly of its catalytic activity. In C. elegans, the loss of dcs-1 affects the level of several microRNAs leading to a misregulation of their mRNA targets. Biochemical analysis, support that DCS-1 contributes to degradation of unbound microRNA, which is dependent on the 5' to 3' exonuclease XRN-1. In order to better understand the regulation of miRNAs, we sought to identify other members of this complex. An initial study of proteins identified by mass spectrometry revealed that the loss of ppm-2 induces several developmental defects associated with the loss of miRNAs. As PPM-2 is a phosphatase, our results suggest that it could affect the stability of the degradation complex by targeting one of its components or the miRNA loading on the Argonaute protein. In conclusion, our data support that DCS-1 is part of a degradation complex. Importantly, this study identified the first modulators of microRNA degradation in animals and proteins forming this complex are conserved in human suggesting that they could also be implicated in microRNA degradation in higher organisms. Since microRNA are misregulated in many human diseases, identification of factors modulating their stability could lead to new therapeutic approaches.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2014
Open Access Date: 23 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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