Ionisation du xénon à l'échelle du cycle optique et développement et caractérisation d'une source d'impulsions EUV appliquée à la technologie attoseconde
|Abstract:||This thesis is the result of several years of experimental work mainly in the fields of atomic physics and intense laser fields. The first chapters present the relevant physical principles for this work, the laser systems and the spectroscopic techniques used in our experiments. The work has then two main parts. The first part of the original scientific work, deals with the study of ionization processes of the xenon atom with few-cycle laser pulses (7 fs) (chapter 4) as well as with polarizationgated pulses (chapter 5). We begin in chapter 2, where we explain an experimental technique called continuously adjustable polarization gating technique developed to shorten the effective duration of an interaction. The time-of-flight mass spectroscopy and the photoelectron imaging spectroscopy are used to study the non sequential ionization processes and the multiphoton interactions respectively. The chapter 4 first highlights the superposition of resonant and non resonant ionization processes obtained with a few-cycle laser pulse. The probabilities for multiple ionization are experimentally obtained and allow the distinction between sequential and non sequential ionization processes. The results are compared with a model developed in chapter 3. The chapter 5 presents two experiments where the duration of interaction is reduced continuously up to the order of an optical cycle. First, we show the contribution to non sequential double ionization of an optical cycle by the rescattering process of an electron toward its parent ion. Then, taking advantage of the selection rules we show the possibility of confining a multiphoton resonant transition in the time domain. The second part of the work is presented in chapter 6 and revolves around the creation and characterization of a device for the production of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) attosecond ([symbol]) pulses by using the high-order harmonic generation process in a gaseous medium. We explain the scientific approach used in developing the project and we present a new type of gas cell for the production of EUV radiation. We discuss the spectral characterization and we present procedures for optimizing the EUV emission. Finally, we conduct a summary assessment of the device by showing the improvements and possible paths for future work.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||23 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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