Algorithmes et processeurs temps réel de traitement de signaux neuronaux pour une plateforme optogénétique sans fil

Authors: Gagnon-Turcotte, Gabriel
Advisor: Gosselin, BenoitSawan, Mohamad
Abstract: The electrical signals acquisition from the brain’s neurons allows neuroscientists to better understand its functioning. In this work, new neural signals compression algorithms are designed and presented. These new algorithms are incorporated into three new miniature optogenetic wireless devices. These devices are capable to optically stimulate neural activity and to wirelessly transmit the biopotentials captured by several microelectrodes. Two of these systems are able to compress the signals from two microelectrodes and to stimulate optically via two high-power LED. Both systems feature a new spike detection algorithm to reduce the bandwidth used by the wireless transceiver. This new spike detection algorithm differs from existing algorithms by achieving better detection rate while using less material resources and processing time. A third device incorporating the detection and compression algorithms was designed. This device is the only optogenetic wireless system including 32 optical stimulation channels and 32 electrophysiological recording channels in parallel. This new system has the ability to compress the neural signals using a new wavelet compression technique that significantly increase the number of channels under observation without increasing the consumption of the wireless transceiver. In particular, this new compression technique differs from the existing wavelet based compression methods by achieving better compression ratio while allowing to reconstruct the compressed signals with better quality. At the time of writing this thesis, these are the first three devices that offer simultaneous multichannel optical stimulation, multichannel electrophysiological signals recording and on-the-fly spike detection. The resulting systems are more compact and lightweight than previous systems, making these devices essentials to conduct long term experiments on the brains of small freely moving animals. The three systems were validated within in vivo experiments using transgenic mice at the Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Québec (CRIUSMQ).
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2015
Open Access Date: 23 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/26339
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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