Adoption de l'alimentation méditerranéenne basée sur la théorie de l'autodétermination : différences entre les hommes et les femmes

Authors: Leblanc, Vicky
Advisor: Lemieux, SimoneDesroches, Sophie
Abstract: The Mediterranean diet is now recognized as one of the best models of food patterns and its cardioprotective effects are well established in the literature. As evidence suggests differences between men and women in eating habits and in dietary changes in response to interventions, it can be questioned whether men and women could get the same health benefits from the adoption of the Mediterranean diet. It has also been suggested that motivation is an important factor in the context of dietary changes and some studies indicate that self-determined motivation toward eating is associated with the adoption of healthy dietary behaviors and long-term adherence to those changes. However, few studies assessed the importance of quality in motivational factors related to dietary changes, and to our knowledge, none has considered potential differences between men and women. This study aimed at assessing the impact of gender in the adoption of a Mediterranean diet in response to a nutritional education program based on a motivational approach, in men and women presenting risk factors for cardiovascular disease. To meet this objective, 64 men and 59 premenopausal women were recruited into our 12-week nutritional education program based on the motivational interviewing approach. The nutritional intervention aimed at promoting self-determined motivation, more precisely in a context that fosters satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the determination of dietary changes and potential strategies. The nutritional intervention included three group sessions, three individual sessions and four follow-up telephone calls with a registered dietitian. Both men and women increased their adherence to the Mediterranean diet in response to the nutritional intervention, although men showed more pronounced changes in some specific food groups. A positive association between increases in self-determined motivation and increases in the adherence to the Mediterranean diet was observed in men only. Men also showed more pronounced changes in metabolic variables. In conclusion, our results indicate that the nutritional intervention program based on a motivational approach led to improvement in dietary intakes and to decreases in cardiovascular risk factors, more particularly in men.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2015
Open Access Date: 23 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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