Étude du rôle extra-plaquettaire des microARN : implication des microparticules de plaquettes dans les communications intercellulaires

Authors: Laffont, Benoit
Advisor: Provost, Patrick
Abstract: Blood platelets contain an abundant and diverse array of microRNAs, which are small non-coding RNAs of ~20 nucleotides involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Upon activation, platelets release microparticles (MPs) containing genetic materials from their parental cells that may be transferred to, and exert potent biological effects in, recipient cells. During my PhD thesis, I studied the extra-platelet role of microRNAs, and the ability of platelet-derived MPs to mediate cell-to-cell communications. The results that I obtained demonstrate that thrombin-activated platelets preferentially release their microRNA content in MPs, including miR-223. MPs can be internalized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), to which they transfer their miR-223 content. Moreover, platelet MPs contain functional effector Argonaute 2 (Ago2)•miR-223 complexes that are capable of regulating expression of a reporter gene in recipient HUVEC. Finally, platelet MP-derived miR-223 could regulate expression of two endogenous genes in recipient HUVEC, both at the mRNA and protein levels. In a second study, I demonstrated that this process is not exclusive to endothelial cells, and could take place also in primary human macrophages. Following their internalization by macrophages, MPs deliver functional miR-126-3p, which regulated expression of both a reporter gene and endogenous genes. Furthermore, MP internalization modified the transcriptome of recipient macrophages, with 66 microRNAs and 464 coding and non-coding RNAs that are differentially expressed. These changes are associated with a reduced secretion of cytokines and chemokines, and a marked increase in the phagocytic capacity of macrophages. My doctoral work demonstrate that platelet-derived microRNAs transfered by MPs are involved in reprograming recipient cells’ gene expression and functions, which illustrate the growing complexity of cell-to-cell communications.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2015
Open Access Date: 23 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/26138
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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