Films cellulaires en polypropylène chargé de talc et de carbonate de calcium utilisés comme matériaux piézoélectriques : optimisation de la structure cellulaire par étirage bi-axial et par gonglement sous atmosphère d'azote
|Advisor:||Mighri, Frej; Rodrigue, Denis; Ajji, Abdellah|
|Abstract:||Piezoelectric cellular films have been developed, by bi-axial stretching followed by controlled cell inflation, from composite polypropylene (PP) films filled with mineral particles of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and talc. An exhaustive literature review was done to identify the optimum values for the parameters describing the cellular structure promoting piezoelectricity. The most important morphological parameters associated with the structural stiffness of the films, which is inversely proportional to the piezoelectric coefficient, are: cell aspect ratio (a/b), cell thickness (b) and cell wall thickness (t). To optimize the cellular structure created during the bi-axial stretching step, PP films filled with CaCO3 and talc particles of different sizes and shapes were stretched at different temperatures and then underwent a gas diffusion expansion to improve the cell morphology. Initially, 0.9 mm sheets of PP/CaCO3 (12 μm, spherical), PP/CaCO3 (6 μm, spherical), PP/CaCO3 (3 μm, spherical) and PP/talc (10 μm, platy) were extruded before being bi-axially stretched at 152, 155, 158 and 160°C under a stretching rate of 2.4 m/min in both directions. The gas diffusion expansion treatment of the resulting films was done with nitrogen at 130°C. The cell morphology analysis was done from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images to quantify a/b, b and t. It was observed that films made of PP/CaCO3 (3 μm) did not yield any cells. However, those made from PP/CaCO3 (12 μm) and stretched at 152°C had the best cellular structure when the CaCO3 concentration was 35% wt. The best morphology (t = 3.6 μm, a/b = 5.6 and b = 13.6 μm) was achieved within the targeted values to optimize piezoelectric properties. It was found that the ultimate stress during stretching depends on the cellular quality of the resulting film and that, independent of the size of CaCO3 or talc particles, their concentration or the stretching temperature. It was also observed that the stretching ratio at which the ultimate stress was obtained was always around 3.5. This suggested that both the stretching speed and the polymer matrix were responsible for the stretching ratio at which delamination occurs. As expected, particle concentration and their size were shown to be inversely proportional to cell wall thickness, but proportional to the number of cells observed and to their height. Decreasing the stretching temperature amplified the respective effects of the cell morphology associated with particles size and concentration.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||23 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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