Potentiel prébiotique des acides linoléiques conjugués d'origine laitière : analyse in vitro et effets sur l'écosystème gastro-intestinal
|Advisor:||Fliss, Ismaïl; Champagne, Claude P.|
|Abstract:||Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have attracted a lot of interest because of their beneficial effects on health. One hypothesis that could explain the link between the consumption of CLA and the claimed beneficial effects relies to the close interactions between CLA and the human colonic microiota. This study aims to investigate the bioaccessibility of CLA and other fatty acids (FA) of dairy origin during gastrointestinal transit by using different in vitro innovative models. It also aims to evaluate the prebiotic potential of these FA and their impact on the balance of the digestive ecosystem. Fortified milks naturally enriched with cis-9, trans-11 18: 2 (c9 t11 18:2) or by emulsifying two synthetic CLA isomers in the forms of triglycerides or free fatty acid were prepared and used. The milk samples were standardized to 1 and 3.25% fat. An in vitro model reproducing the distal part of the digestive tract has been used for the bioaccessibility study of FA in the digestive tract while a continuous colonic fermentation model with immobilized colonic microbiota was used to study the effect different FA on the balance of the colonic microbiota. Our results showed that the bioaccessibility of FA is highly variable and depends on the length of the FA, the presence of double bonds and the percentage of fat. In general, the absorption was more effective in the presence of 1% fat. Furthermore, the effects of milk CLA after gastrointestinal digestion on the survival and growth of different probiotic strains has shown that Bifidobacteria were not affected by any of the treatments, while a stimulation of growth of Lactobacilli was observed with synthetic FA at 1% MG. Digested milk containing 3.25% fat seems to lead to a mixture of residual fatty acid exhibiting a bactericidal or bacteriostatic effect on Lactobacilli. Finally, the study of the impact of CLA and milk FA did not inducu any significant changes in the microbiota equilibrium. However, some bacterial groups such as bifidobacteria were stimulated. Regarding metabolic activity, we noted a production of oleic acid, vaccenic acid, stearic acid, cis 9, trans-11 18: 2 and trans-10, cis -12 18: 2 which was concomitant with a consumption of linoleic acid.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||23 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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