Impact du mode alimentaire méditérranéen sur la santé cardiovasculaire : étude des différences entre les hommes et les femmes

Authors: Bédard, Alexandra
Advisor: Lemieux, SimoneLamarche, Benoît
Abstract: It is now recognized that the adoption of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with a lower risk of morbidity/mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). The MedDiet exerts beneficial effects on traditional risk factors, but also on non-traditional risk factors as well as on conditions which predispose individuals to CVD, namely the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and obesity. However, it remains unknown whether men and women have similar cardioprotective effects from the MedDiet. As part of my master’s work, we have shown that men and women have similar lipid-lowering effects from the MedDiet. However, a large inter-individual variability in the response was noted in both men and women. Therefore, the first part of this thesis aimed to explain this variability. Our results showed that the abdominal obesity status does not influence these effects. However, compared with individuals with no family history of dyslipidemia, those with a positive family history have limited lipid-lowering effects from the MedDiet. The second part of this thesis had as objective to further document differences between men and women in the impact of the MedDiet on the cardiovascular health. Our results suggest that the short-term consumption of the MedDiet reduces the Framingham risk score, improves the components of the metabolic syndrome, reduces modestly oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and has no effect on C-reactive protein and leptin in both men and women. However in men, but not in women, the consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL, reduces adiponectin concentrations and improves insulin sensitivity. Moreover, our results indicated that women are more sensitive to the satiating effects of the MedDiet than men. Finally, repeated exposure to the MedDiet promotes the long-term adherence to this food pattern (i.e. ~6 months post-intervention) in both men and women and helps for the long-term management of body weight especially in women. In summary, the consumption of the MedDiet leads to several beneficial effects on the cardiovascular health; however some effects appear to be more specific to men or women.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2015
Open Access Date: 23 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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